Created: 2017-05-04 10:37:53.262 by: Generation Service
The exclusive economic zones (EEZ) of coastal countries are coming under increasing pressure from various economic sectors such as fishing, aquaculture, shipping and energy production. In Europe, there is a policy to expand the maritime economic sector without damaging the environment by ensuring that these activities comply with legally binding Directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). However, monitoring an extensive maritime area is a logistical and economic challenge. Remote sensing is considered one of the most cost effective, methods for providing the spatial and temporal environmental data that will be necessary for the effective implementation of the MSFD. However, there is still a concern about the uncertainties associated with remote sensed products. This study has tested how a specific satellite product can contribute to the monitoring of a MSFD Descriptor for \"good environmental status\" (GES). The results show that the quality of the remote sensing product Algal Pigment Index 1 (API 1) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor of the European Space Agency for ocean colour products can be effectively validated with in situ data from three stations off the SW Iberian Peninsula. The validation results show good agreement between the MERIS API 1 and the in situ data for the two more offshore stations, with a higher coefficient of determination (R-2) of 0.79, and with lower uncertainties for the average relative percentage difference (RPD) of 24.6% and 27.9% and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.40 and 0.38 for Stations B and C, respectively. Near to the coast, Station A has the lowest R-2 of 0.63 and the highest uncertainties with an RPD of 112.9% and a RMSE of 1.00. It is also the station most affected by adjacency effects from the land: when the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land processor (ICOL) is applied the R-2 increases to 0.77 and there is a 30% reduction in the uncertainties estimated by RPD. The MERIS API 1 product decreases from inshore to offshore, with higher values occurring mainly between early spring and the end of the summer, and with lower values during winter. By using the satellite images for API 1, it is possible to detect and track the development of algal blooms in coastal and marine waters, demonstrating the usefulness of remote sensing for supporting the implementation of the MSFD with respect to Descriptor 5: Eutrophication. It is probable that remote sensing will also prove to be useful for monitoring other Descriptors of the MSFD. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Domains: geology
Concepts: remote sensing stations uncertainties product Descriptor implementation
Expressions: satellite product remote sensing product
Places: Europe Iberia
Organizations: European Space Agency
Created: 2017-04-18 11:05:03.098 by: Generation Service
Oficial periodic report for the volcano Flegrei: Bollettino_Flegrei_2015_09_01.pdf
Domains: economia termini burocratici
Concepts: Dipartimento della Protezione Civile gennaio sollevamento Campi Flegrei stazione dati terremoto prodotti rete
Expressions: accordo di programma ipocentri dei terremoti dell area
Places: Campi Flegrei
Organizations: RITE
Created: 2017-05-23 12:20:18.675 by: Generation Service
Oficial Daily Hazard Assessment for:2016-12-13
Domains: geophysics
Concepts: Flood December risk days
Expressions: surface waterThe surface water flood risk flood warning December December December December December warnings warning
People: Hazards
Places: Wales
Organizations: Meteorological Office
Created: 2017-05-04 09:18:12.792 by: Generation Service
Domains: broadcasting events
Concepts: awareness solution litter problem activities
Expressions: societal awareness litter in Europe
Places: Europe
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2018-01-18 11:39:29.003 by:
The Description
Concepts: Description
Created: 2017-04-18 10:55:13.459 by: Generation Service
Oficial periodic report for the volcano Flegrei: Bollettino_Flegrei_2015_05_19.pdf
Domains: termini burocratici economia
Concepts: Dipartimento della Protezione Civile gennaio dati sollevamento maggio stazione terremoti
Expressions: accordo di programma ipocentri dei terremoti serie temporale delle variazioni
Places: Campi Flegrei
Organizations: L INGV
Created: 2017-05-23 12:58:06.139 by: Generation Service
Oficial Daily Hazard Assessment for:2016-12-23
Domains: meteorology
Concepts: FLOOD Met Office Dec warning Friday Scotland winds hazard
Expressions: crown copyright westerly wind flood guidance statement gusts of mph
People: Conor
Places: Scotland
Organizations: Meteorological Office
Created: 2017-05-04 10:46:48.261 by: Generation Service
The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2 m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch authorities started to promote sand extraction depths over 2 m for sand volumes over 10 million m(3). The ecological effects of deep sand extraction, however, are still largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated short-term effects (0-2.5 y) of deep sand extraction (20-24 m) and compared these with other case studies such as, regular shallow sand extraction on the DCS (2 m) and an 8 m deepened shipping lane. For intercomparison between case studies we used tide-averaged bed shear stress as a generic proxy for environmental and related ecological effects. Bed shear stress can be estimated with a two-dimensional quadratic friction law and showed a decrease from 0.50 to 0.04 N m(-2) in a borrow pit in 20 m deep water and extraction depths up to 24m. Macrozoobenthos in a borrow pit with a tide-averaged bed shear stress of around 0.41 N m(-2) is expected to return back to pre-extraction conditions within 4-6 year. When tide-averaged bed shear stress decreases below 0.17 N m(-2) enhanced macrozoobenthic species richness and biomass can occur. Below a tide-averaged bed shear stress of 0.08 N m(-2), increasing abundance and biomass of brittle stars, white furrow shell (Abra alba) and plaice (platessa platessa) can be expected. Below 0.04 N m(-2), an overdominance and high biomass of brittle stars can be expected whereas demersal fish biomass and species composition may return to reference conditions. Next to changes in faunal composition, a high sedimentation rate can be expected. Ecological data and bed shear stress values were transformed into ecosystem-based design (EBD) rules. At higher flow velocities and larger water depths, larger extraction depths can be applied to achieve desired tide-averaged bed shear stresses for related ecological effects. The EBD rules can be used in the early-design phases of future borrow pits in order to simultaneously maximise sand yields and decrease the surface area of direct impact. The EBD rules and ecological landscaping can also help in implementing the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) guidelines and moving to or maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Domains: geology
Concepts: sand extraction bed
Expressions: extraction depths tide-averaged bed
People: Abra
Places: Dutch Continental Shelf
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:23:58.893 by: Generation Service
Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Domains: chemistry
Concepts: status Assessment environment management
Expressions: aquatic environment priority compound
Places: Europe
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2017-04-18 10:33:28.242 by: Generation Service
Oficial periodic report for the volcano Flegrei: Bollettino_Flegrei_2014_10_21.pdf
Domains: termini burocratici linguistica
Concepts: ottobre Dipartimento della Protezione Civile Campi Flegrei prodotti incertezza Dipartimento variazioni territorio Sorveglianza
Expressions: dati L INGV Nell ordine dell incertezza serie temporale delle variazioni
Places: Campi Flegrei
Organizations: RITE