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Created: 2017-05-04 09:16:47.24 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EG; MSFD) creates a regulatory framework for action by all EU member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status in all European seas by 2020. For this reason, all marine states of the EU must implement the Directive by developing and implementing national strategies. To this effect, the MSFD assigns EU member states a major programme of activities in a very tight timeframe. Hence, by 2010, the Directive should actually be transposed into national law and EU-wide criteria and methodological standards should be laid down (including for marine species and habitats) by a range of working groups in the EU Commission and under regional marine conventions. Moreover tasks have to be completed by 2012. Those tasks include an initial assessment of marine waters, the determination of good environmental status and the establishment of environmental targets. Besides Member states must report by 2013 among other things on progress in establishing marine protected areas. Furthermore monitoring programmes must be established and implemented by 2014, and programmes of measures must be developed by 2015 and must enter into operation by 2016. Finally a good environmental status is to be achieved in all European seas by 2020. This contribution critically attends to the recently inured act modifying the German Federal Water Act 2010 as amended and promulgated on 6th October 2011 in order to implement the MSFD into national German Law. Thereby the focal point is especially on the question, whether the newly created legal construct of an \"alternative legislation\", used by the federal states, passes its \"trial by fire\".
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: geography
Concepts: EU Directive Strategy status
Expressions: framework directive EU member
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:13:34.419 by: Generation Service
The coming into effect of the Directive 2008/56/EC (Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)) will induce European Union member States to create mechanisms for managing maritime space in order to comply with the goals set out in this binding legislation. This leads one to think that marine spatial planning in various countries in the EU will be directed at complying with the Directive's environmental goals, as is the case in Spain, rather than undertaking proactive planning for developing the maritime sectors. To put the case of Spain into perspective, a review is conducted of the initiatives taken, especially in Europe and the European Union, exploring the correlations between the main focuses of the maritime sectors and the planning systems. The analysis of the Spanish initiative demonstrates how the maritime economy model and geopolitical factors explain the planning options for the marine environment. In other respects, with the coming into effect of the MSFD, a dual institutional course for marine spatial planning seems to be opening up in the EU: Integrated Maritime Policy vs. the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: statistics
Concepts: EU planning Directive
Expressions: planning system framework directive
Places: Spain
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:12:20.83 by: Generation Service
Commonly, the Baltic Sea is pictured as a proactive region with a long-standing tradition for cooperation and surrounded by the \"greenest\" EU countries. In contrast, southern countries often suffer from the \"Mediterranean Syndrome\" in which the heterogenous socio political situation is given as the \"proof\" that cooperation would not work. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive adopted by European Union in 2008 is an important step towards ecosystem-based marine management and provides a legal document suggesting marine regions as a scale for cooperation. In this paper, we aim to explore stakeholders' perspectives on key factors for good governance at the regional sea level covering the Eastern Baltic States and the south of France. We targeted a broad panel of professionals from different sectors with a political, economic or societal importance in the respective seas. We suggest that Baltic and Mediterranean stakeholders are going through very different stages of governance adjustment fitting the purpose of ecosystem-based marine management. Baltic institutions are well established, which in some way prevents structural analysis of whether the current governance model is the most appropriate reaching GES. In the Mediterranean, the EU strategies faces institutional challenges, which is leading stakeholders to think \"out of the box\" about what is really needed for implementing ecosystem-based marine management for this sea. It is suggested that a golden opportunity exists at present in the Mediterranean to create a regional platform of cooperation, not only to fit the MSFD implementation, but also to improve governance of the Mediterranean Sea and its environmental status. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: governance Mediterranean Sea EU stakeholders
Expressions: framework directive Mediterranean Sea governance
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:04:45.11 by: Generation Service
This article addresses the institutional ambiguity that exists between the European, Regional and Member State levels in the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The two main reasons for the emergence of institutional ambiguity are (1) the MSFD being a framework directive and (2) Member States are required to coordinate the implementation of the MFSD through the Regional Sea Conventions. Institutional ambiguity refers to the interference zone between different institutional settings that come together in new policy practices. New rules of the game are needed to bring these institutional settings together and the room to manoeuvre for the actors who negotiate these rules is a defining feature of institutional ambiguity. This article analyses the institutional ambiguity associated with MSFD implementation on the European and regional level for four European Seas: the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. The results indicate different levels of institutional ambiguity in each of the four regions, with the lowest level of ambiguity in the Baltic Sea and the highest in the Mediterranean Sea. Institutional ambiguity also exists on the European level, as coordination efforts have not resulted in clear directions for the implementation of the MSFD as yet. The level of institutional ambiguity is influenced by the relative number of EU member states bordering the particular sea and whether they consider implementation of the MFSD to be urgent. Member States bordering the Mediterranean and the Black Seas lack the support of Regional Sea Conventions in addition to receiving limited direction from the European level. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: ambiguity Sea level
Expressions: framework directive implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 09:28:19.397 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires EU member states (MS) to develop and implement marine strategies containing programs of measures to protect and preserve the marine environment. Prior to their implementation, impact assessments, including Cost-Benefit-Analyses (CBA), need to be carried out. While the costs of introducing such measures are often relatively easy to determine, the economic valuation of the benefits derived from environmental improvements is much more challenging, particularly in the marine context. Still, it remains an important prerequisite for conducting CBA. The aim of this paper is to evaluate to what extent benefits can be quantified for use in CBA focusing on the German marine waters. The results indicate that there are still considerable gaps in the scientific knowledge about many of the pressures mentioned in the MSFD. Moreover, few economic studies exist that evaluate the benefits of marine protection measures, and many of them are not applicable in the German context. In addition, there is the risk that some benefits accruing from marine protection measures are systematically omitted in CBA. This raises the question to what extent comprehensive CBAs as required by the MSFD are possible in Germany, but also in other EU MS. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: Cost-benefit analysis EU measures Strategy
Expressions: framework directive valuation of the benefit
Places: Germany
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 09:59:04.273 by: Generation Service
The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i) the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED); (ii) the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED); (iii) the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA); and (iv) the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED). The updated checklist (December 2010) of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718), less in the WMED (328) and CMED (267) and least in the Adriatic (171). Of these, 535 species (56%) are established in at least one area. Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(sub)tropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED. Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 75 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion's share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: species Mediterranean Sea
Expressions: framework directive species in the Mediterranean Sea
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 09:22:03.352 by: Generation Service
There have been numerous anthropogenic-driven changes to our planet in the last half-century. One of the most evident changes is the ubiquity and abundance of litter in the marine environment. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) establishes a framework within which EU Member States shall take action to achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) of their marine waters by 2020. GES is based on 11 qualitative descriptors as listed in Annex I of the MSFD. Descriptor 10 (D 10) concerns marine litter. As a follow-up to the related Commission Decision on criteria and methodological standards (2010/477/EU) in which 56 indicators for the achievement of GES are proposed, the EC Directorate-General for the Environment, on the request of the European Marine Directors, established a Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter (TSG ML) under the Working Group on GES. The role of TSG ML is to support Member States through providing scientific and technical background for the implementation of MSFD requirements with regard to D 10. Started in 2011, TSG ML provides technical recommendations for the implementation of the MSFD requirements for marine litter. It summarizes the available information on monitoring approaches and considers how GES and environmental targets could be defined with the aim of preventing further inputs of litter to, and reducing its total amount in, the marine environment. It also identifies research needs, priorities and strategies in support of the implementation of D 10. The work of TSG ML also focuses on the specification of monitoring methods through the development of monitoring protocols for litter in the different marine compartments, and for microplastics and litter in biota. Further consideration is being given to monitoring strategies in general and associated costs. Other priorities include the identification of sources of marine litter and a better understanding of the harm caused by marine litter.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: inorganic chemistry
Concepts: litter GES Strategy
Expressions: framework directive methodological standard
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 11:34:12.565 by: Generation Service
In recent years, many studies have evaluated the effects of anthropogenic acoustic disturbance on marine organisms. Sounds associated with shipping, seismic surveys, sonar, and many other such sources induce several types of effect on fish and marine mammals. In this regard, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC has not only defined underwater acoustic noise as \"the intentional or accidental introduction of acoustic energy in the water column from impulsive and diffuse sources\", but has also expressly identified it as a form of pollution. In 2014, the first Italian proposal has been defined with the aim of developing a widespread monitoring plan for sub-regions in European Union waters with respect to two different sub-programs concerning impulsive (Descriptor 11.1) and continuous low frequency (Descriptor 11.2) sounds. The objective of Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the implementation of a recording system for temporal-spatial data regarding impulsive sound sources arising from anthropogenic activities. The pressure, for Descriptor 11.1, is measured by evaluating the source level, or a suitable proxy for anthropogenic sound sources, measured over the frequency band 10 Hz-10 kHz (and up to 40 kHz for cetacean detection), that could have an impact on marine organisms. The Descriptor 11.2 would monitor trends in the ambient noise level within the 1/3 octave bands 63 and 125 Hz (centre frequency) (re 1 mu Pa RMS; average noise level in these octave bands over a year) via observation stations. This monitoring plan aims to obtain noise maps of sea regions for the frequency band 10 Hz-10 kHz (and up to 40 kHz for cetacean detection) by improving existing geophysical/acoustic observation stations, e.g. those of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), as well as other medium- and long-term monitoring stations. The program also wants to define the level of damage caused by underwater noise, using underwater noise as an example to evaluate the impact of this type of noise on different marine organisms. Maritime spatial planning (MSP) and integrated coastal management (ICZM) have to employ an ecosystem-based approach that ensures the protection of the natural resources and provides the basis for carrying out the various monitoring activities. The Italian monitoring proposal on Descriptor 11 of Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was used in order to analyze the strategic vision of the integrated maritime policy (IMP) between MSFD and MSP programs in terms of achieving Good Environmental Status (GES). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: marine biology geography
Concepts: Descriptor monitoring noise Directive organisms proposal sources
Expressions: framework directive planning directive
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2018-06-20 11:25:15.829 by: Generation Service
The coming into effect of the Directive 2008/56/EC (Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)) will induce European Union member States to create mechanisms for managing maritime space in order to comply with the goals set out in this binding legislation. This leads one to think that marine spatial planning in various countries in the EU will be directed at complying with the Directive's environmental goals, as is the case in Spain, rather than undertaking proactive planning for developing the maritime sectors. To put the case of Spain into perspective, a review is conducted of the initiatives taken, especially in Europe and the European Union, exploring the correlations between the main focuses of the maritime sectors and the planning systems. The analysis of the Spanish initiative demonstrates how the maritime economy model and geopolitical factors explain the planning options for the marine environment. In other respects, with the coming into effect of the MSFD, a dual institutional course for marine spatial planning seems to be opening up in the EU: Integrated Maritime Policy vs. the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: statistics
Concepts: EU planning Directive
Expressions: planning system framework directive
Places: Spain
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2018-06-20 11:23:54.597 by: Generation Service
This article addresses the institutional ambiguity that exists between the European, Regional and Member State levels in the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The two main reasons for the emergence of institutional ambiguity are (1) the MSFD being a framework directive and (2) Member States are required to coordinate the implementation of the MFSD through the Regional Sea Conventions. Institutional ambiguity refers to the interference zone between different institutional settings that come together in new policy practices. New rules of the game are needed to bring these institutional settings together and the room to manoeuvre for the actors who negotiate these rules is a defining feature of institutional ambiguity. This article analyses the institutional ambiguity associated with MSFD implementation on the European and regional level for four European Seas: the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. The results indicate different levels of institutional ambiguity in each of the four regions, with the lowest level of ambiguity in the Baltic Sea and the highest in the Mediterranean Sea. Institutional ambiguity also exists on the European level, as coordination efforts have not resulted in clear directions for the implementation of the MSFD as yet. The level of institutional ambiguity is influenced by the relative number of EU member states bordering the particular sea and whether they consider implementation of the MFSD to be urgent. Member States bordering the Mediterranean and the Black Seas lack the support of Regional Sea Conventions in addition to receiving limited direction from the European level. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: ambiguity Sea level
Expressions: framework directive implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Organizations: European Union