22 results found in 4 ms Page 1 of 3
The implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive - baptism of fire for the legislative construct of federal state variance legislation?
Created: 2017-05-04 09:16:47.24 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EG; MSFD) creates a regulatory framework for action by all EU member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status in all European seas by 2020. For this reason, all marine states of the EU must implement the Directive by developing and implementing national strategies. To this effect, the MSFD assigns EU member states a major programme of activities in a very tight timeframe. Hence, by 2010, the Directive should actually be transposed into national law and EU-wide criteria and methodological standards should be laid down (including for marine species and habitats) by a range of working groups in the EU Commission and under regional marine conventions. Moreover tasks have to be completed by 2012. Those tasks include an initial assessment of marine waters, the determination of good environmental status and the establishment of environmental targets. Besides Member states must report by 2013 among other things on progress in establishing marine protected areas. Furthermore monitoring programmes must be established and implemented by 2014, and programmes of measures must be developed by 2015 and must enter into operation by 2016. Finally a good environmental status is to be achieved in all European seas by 2020. This contribution critically attends to the recently inured act modifying the German Federal Water Act 2010 as amended and promulgated on 6th October 2011 in order to implement the MSFD into national German Law. Thereby the focal point is especially on the question, whether the newly created legal construct of an \"alternative legislation\", used by the federal states, passes its \"trial by fire\".
Created: 2017-05-04 11:01:52.968 by: Generation Service
Places: United States of America
The Spanish approach to marine spatial planning. Marine Strategy Framework Directive vs. EU Integrated Maritime Policy
Created: 2017-05-04 10:13:34.419 by: Generation Service
The coming into effect of the Directive 2008/56/EC (Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)) will induce European Union member States to create mechanisms for managing maritime space in order to comply with the goals set out in this binding legislation. This leads one to think that marine spatial planning in various countries in the EU will be directed at complying with the Directive's environmental goals, as is the case in Spain, rather than undertaking proactive planning for developing the maritime sectors. To put the case of Spain into perspective, a review is conducted of the initiatives taken, especially in Europe and the European Union, exploring the correlations between the main focuses of the maritime sectors and the planning systems. The analysis of the Spanish initiative demonstrates how the maritime economy model and geopolitical factors explain the planning options for the marine environment. In other respects, with the coming into effect of the MSFD, a dual institutional course for marine spatial planning seems to be opening up in the EU: Integrated Maritime Policy vs. the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 09:48:59.118 by: Generation Service
The EU Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) is in its' final implementation stage. This year (2009) all EU member states must finalize and publish their first River Basin Management Plans, setting out clearly the steps required to achieve good ecological and chemical status and promote the sustainable use of water by 2015. These management plans apply to all surface freshwater bodies, groundwater, estuaries and coastal waters out to one nautical mile. In 2008 the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (Directive 2008/56/EC) became law. It provides national and local authorities with a legal base for the maintenance and recovery of coastal and marine waters with the aim of achieving good environmental status and to promote the sustainable use of the marine environment by 2021. The three main challenges of the MSFD are 1) the need to establish a common vision and a general approach for all regional seas, 2) the need to establish a specific regional approach to the management of the marine environment and 3) the need to address all pressures on the marine environment in a holistic and integrated approach. This article outlines the steps, taken in Slovenia in the preparation of its own RBMP's and summarizes the key findings and the main managerial issues encountered. In addition, a description of initial steps, taken during the implementation of the MSFD and art analysis of links and gaps between the implementation of the WFD and MFSD is presented.
Organizations: European Community
Created: 2017-05-04 11:15:57.494 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is considered to be the environmental pillar of the EU Integrated Maritime Policy, establishing a framework within which member states must take the necessary measures to achieve, or maintain, good environmental status in their marine waters. This study presents Portugal's contributions to the Directive development, describes the Portuguese institutional framework within the MSFD and, finally, highlights the opportunities and threats to the success of the MSFD implementation in Portugal. The latter entails an analysis of the Directive's long term adequacy in its link to (1) marine spatial planning, (2) climate change and (3) the economic/financial crisis. With one of Europe's largest exclusive economic zones. Portugal's interest in the MSFD is paramount. Efforts towards the approval of the final document were assured during the Portuguese presidency of the European Council of Ministers, in 2007, while chairing a thorough discussion between the Council and the European Parliament. In the Portuguese context, the Directive implementation will rely on the Water Institute as the authoritative entity, which will be responsible for coordinating all necessary efforts at the national level. The success of such process depends on a close cooperation among the institutions involved as well as on how approved measures account for long term issues. In addition, the MSFD implementation must be built on lessons learned within the Water Framework Directive, in order to be successful. Although it poses a methodological challenge to Portugal, the MSFD implementation is expected to contribute significantly to the improvement of coastal/marine conservation and management at the national level. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: Water Institute
Created: 2017-05-04 09:57:47.41 by: Generation Service
Current national (e.g. UK Marine and Coastal Access Act) and international (e.g. Water Framework Directive, Habitats and Bird Directives, European Marine Strategy Framework Directive) legislation and the recent UK state of the seas report Charting Progress 2 have focused on the quality and status of the marine environment. To this end, the UK has continued to work on the need to develop indicators which can assist with this process. This work has helped to identify the natural processes and man-made activities that are affecting marine systems. One of the marine descriptors within the MSFD is 'seabed integrity'. This descriptor asks member states to ensure that the structure and function of ecosystems are safeguarded and benthic systems are not adversely affected. To date, we have furthered our understanding of the seabed by, for example, studying benthic systems. For this purpose indicator tools, such as a suite of benthic indices, have been employed as measures of the health of benthic systems'. In most cases this information mainly relates to the structure of benthic populations. However, there is a gap in terms of what we can measure with regards to the function of the ecosystem and how individual benthic animals perform their roles within specific ecosystems. There is also a lack of data to assess if the functions of the seafloor are safeguarded. This work has combined two metrics, bioturbation potential (Bpc) calculated from quantitative information and apparent redox discontinuity layer (aRPD) derived from SPI images. Results indicated that both metrics provide valuable complementary information. The aRPD informed on the status of the sedimentary environment and these values were easily related to Bpc values. The Bpc values were used to quantify bioturbation activity and species' identity at each site. The link between aRPD and Bpc can allow characterisation of 4 conceptual areas in relation to a key sediment function such as to carbon and nutrient cycling rates and control areas. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: United Kingdom
Created: 2017-05-04 11:06:04.939 by: Generation Service
Many definitions of the ecosystem approach circulate, the common denominator being the system approach which seeks to take the entirety of a marine ecosystem into consideration. As marine ecosystems cover large geographical areas this approach calls for cooperation between the riparian states. This has being acknowledged in EU policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Marine Spatial Planning Directive. Yet implementing the ecosystem approach in practise runs into some operationalisation issues such as the position of regional cooperation between Member States vis a vis the treaty of the European Union: the positioning of the ecosystem approach between fisheries management and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive; the problem of stakeholder involvement and the balancing of ecological and economic concerns: the tension of the need for relative stability and the introduction of possible new models for organising regional cooperation. These issues appear to be like elephants in the room: obvious issues related to the need for regionalisation which apparently remain undiscussed. In this article, based on analyses within a number of European projects and discussions with relevant actors, the needed discussion on how to organise the management of human activities at the appropriate geo-political level matching the scale of the ecosystem, hence institutionalising marine management at the regional level, is initiated. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The use of benthic indicators in Europe: From the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 09:38:24.871 by: Generation Service
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) are the European umbrella regulations for water systems. It is a challenge for the scientific community to translate the principles of these directives into realistic and accurate approaches. The aim of this paper, conducted by the Benthos Ecology Working Group of ICES, is to describe how the principles have been translated, which were the challenges and best way forward. We have tackled the following principles: the ecosystem-based approach, the development of benthic indicators, the definition of 'pristine' or sustainable conditions, the detection of pressures and the development of monitoring programs. We concluded that testing and integrating the different approaches was facilitated during the WFD process, which led to further insights and improvements, which the MSFD can rely upon. Expert involvement in the entire implementation process proved to be of vital importance. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: Benthos Ecology Working Group
Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 11:05:19.061 by: Generation Service
In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into account related legislation, and in particular the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD - 2000/60/EC), which deals with river basins, including estuaries and a narrow coastal strip, in order to examine these issues within the framework of integrated coastal zone management. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: Aegean Sea
Organizations: European Community
Microbial assemblages for environmental quality assessment: Knowledge, gaps and usefulness in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 09:32:55.453 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC (MSFD) defines a framework for Community actions in the field of marine environmental policy in order to achieve and/or maintain the Good Environmental Status (GES) of the European seas by 2020. Microbial assemblages (from viruses to microbial-sized metazoa) provide a major contribution to global biodiversity and play a crucial role in the functioning of marine ecosystems, but are largely ignored by the MSFD. Prokaryotes are only seen as \"microbial pathogens,\" without defining their role in GES indicators. However, structural or functional prokaryotic variables (abundance, biodiversity and metabolism) can be easily incorporated into several MSFD descriptors (i.e. D1. biodiversity, D4. food webs, D5. eutrophication, D8. contaminants and D9. contaminants in seafood) with beneficial effects. This review provides a critical analysis of the current MSFD descriptors and illustrates the reliability and advantages of the potential incorporation of some prokaryotic variables within the set of indicators of marine environmental quality. Following a cost/benefit analysis against scientific and economic criteria, we conclude that marine microbial components, and particularly prokaryotes, are highly effective for detecting the effects of anthropogenic pressures on marine environments and for assessing changes in the environmental health status. Thus, we recommend the inclusion of these components in future implementations of the MSFD.
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