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Created: 2017-05-04 09:18:12.792 by: Generation Service
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: broadcasting events
Concepts: awareness solution litter problem activities
Expressions: societal awareness litter in Europe
Places: Europe
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2017-05-04 09:33:31.176 by: Generation Service
In its decision (20101477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socioeconomic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of \"ingestion\" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography ecology
Concepts: litter composition amount species Trends impact
Expressions: socioeconomic impact entanglement ingestion
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Organizations: European Union European Community
Created: 2017-05-04 11:17:18.666 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires EU Member States to sample and monitor marine litter. Criteria for sampling and detecting spatial and/or temporal variation in the amount of litter present have been developed and initiated throughout Europe. These include implementing standardised sampling and recording methods to enable cross-comparison and consistency between neighbours. Parameters of interest include; litter occurrence, composition, distribution and source. This paper highlights the litter-related initiatives occurring in Irish waters; presents an offshore benthic litter sampling series; provides a power analysis to determine trend detection thresholds; identifies areas and sources of litter; and proposes improvements to meet reporting obligations. Litter was found to be distributed throughout Irish waters with highest occurrences in the Celtic Sea. Over 50% of litter encountered was attributed to fishing activities: however only a small proportion of the variability in litter occurrence could be explained by spatial patterns in fishing effort. Issues in implementing standardised protocol were observed and addressed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: litter occurrence
Expressions: litter occurrence analysis of litter
Places: Celtic Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 11:20:59.397 by: Generation Service
Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the north-western Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: geography
Concepts: litter beaches abundance activities
Expressions: beach user distribution of litter
Places: Adriatic Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:58:30.326 by: Generation Service
On June 2013 a workshop at the University of Siena (Italy) was organized to review current knowledge and to clarify what is known, and what remains to be investigated, concerning plastic litter in the sea. The content of the workshop was designed to contribute further to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) following an inaugural workshop in 2012. Here we report a number of statements relevant to policymakers and scientists that was overwhelming agreement from the participants. Many might view this as already providing sufficient grounds for policy action. At the very least, this early warning of the problems that lie ahead should be taken seriously, and serve as a stimulus for further research. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: Plastic sea litter
Expressions: plastic litter in the sea plastic litter
Places: Italy
Organizations: Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 10:28:52.835 by: Generation Service
Marine litter is a problem that undermines the Scottish Government's vision for 'clean, healthy, safe, productive, biologically diverse marine and coastal environments, managed to meet the long term needs of nature and people'. The impacts of marine litter extend to environmental, social and economic spheres but currently the understanding of effects is limited. It is clear however, that marine litter can impact on a range of resources and ultimately threaten policy goals such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its focus on delivering a clean and healthy marine environment. The Scottish Government has initiated a process to advance a marine litter strategy as part of its response to the MSFD. This paper draws upon the literature and practice of environmental policy integration to 'identify opportunities and obstacles in the emerging policy response in Scotland. Ultimately, any marine litter strategy for Scotland should be innovative and forward looking, coordinating amongst the variety of sectors, users and instruments available joining the dots' to tackle the considerable challenges in educating the public and contributing to a zero waste Scotland. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: physiology
Concepts: litter Scotland policy
Expressions: policy integration policy response
Places: Scotland
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2017-05-04 09:22:03.352 by: Generation Service
There have been numerous anthropogenic-driven changes to our planet in the last half-century. One of the most evident changes is the ubiquity and abundance of litter in the marine environment. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) establishes a framework within which EU Member States shall take action to achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) of their marine waters by 2020. GES is based on 11 qualitative descriptors as listed in Annex I of the MSFD. Descriptor 10 (D 10) concerns marine litter. As a follow-up to the related Commission Decision on criteria and methodological standards (2010/477/EU) in which 56 indicators for the achievement of GES are proposed, the EC Directorate-General for the Environment, on the request of the European Marine Directors, established a Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter (TSG ML) under the Working Group on GES. The role of TSG ML is to support Member States through providing scientific and technical background for the implementation of MSFD requirements with regard to D 10. Started in 2011, TSG ML provides technical recommendations for the implementation of the MSFD requirements for marine litter. It summarizes the available information on monitoring approaches and considers how GES and environmental targets could be defined with the aim of preventing further inputs of litter to, and reducing its total amount in, the marine environment. It also identifies research needs, priorities and strategies in support of the implementation of D 10. The work of TSG ML also focuses on the specification of monitoring methods through the development of monitoring protocols for litter in the different marine compartments, and for microplastics and litter in biota. Further consideration is being given to monitoring strategies in general and associated costs. Other priorities include the identification of sources of marine litter and a better understanding of the harm caused by marine litter.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: inorganic chemistry
Concepts: litter GES Strategy
Expressions: framework directive methodological standard
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2018-06-20 11:32:03.953 by: Generation Service
On June 2013 a workshop at the University of Siena (Italy) was organized to review current knowledge and to clarify what is known, and what remains to be investigated, concerning plastic litter in the sea. The content of the workshop was designed to contribute further to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) following an inaugural workshop in 2012. Here we report a number of statements relevant to policymakers and scientists that was overwhelming agreement from the participants. Many might view this as already providing sufficient grounds for policy action. At the very least, this early warning of the problems that lie ahead should be taken seriously, and serve as a stimulus for further research. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: Plastic sea litter
Expressions: plastic litter in the sea plastic litter
Places: Italy
Organizations: Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2018-06-20 11:27:24.423 by: Generation Service
Marine litter is a problem that undermines the Scottish Government's vision for 'clean, healthy, safe, productive, biologically diverse marine and coastal environments, managed to meet the long term needs of nature and people'. The impacts of marine litter extend to environmental, social and economic spheres but currently the understanding of effects is limited. It is clear however, that marine litter can impact on a range of resources and ultimately threaten policy goals such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its focus on delivering a clean and healthy marine environment. The Scottish Government has initiated a process to advance a marine litter strategy as part of its response to the MSFD. This paper draws upon the literature and practice of environmental policy integration to 'identify opportunities and obstacles in the emerging policy response in Scotland. Ultimately, any marine litter strategy for Scotland should be innovative and forward looking, coordinating amongst the variety of sectors, users and instruments available joining the dots' to tackle the considerable challenges in educating the public and contributing to a zero waste Scotland. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: physiology
Concepts: litter Scotland policy
Expressions: policy integration policy response
Places: Scotland
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2018-06-20 11:17:43.001 by: Generation Service
There have been numerous anthropogenic-driven changes to our planet in the last half-century. One of the most evident changes is the ubiquity and abundance of litter in the marine environment. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) establishes a framework within which EU Member States shall take action to achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) of their marine waters by 2020. GES is based on 11 qualitative descriptors as listed in Annex I of the MSFD. Descriptor 10 (D 10) concerns marine litter. As a follow-up to the related Commission Decision on criteria and methodological standards (2010/477/EU) in which 56 indicators for the achievement of GES are proposed, the EC Directorate-General for the Environment, on the request of the European Marine Directors, established a Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter (TSG ML) under the Working Group on GES. The role of TSG ML is to support Member States through providing scientific and technical background for the implementation of MSFD requirements with regard to D 10. Started in 2011, TSG ML provides technical recommendations for the implementation of the MSFD requirements for marine litter. It summarizes the available information on monitoring approaches and considers how GES and environmental targets could be defined with the aim of preventing further inputs of litter to, and reducing its total amount in, the marine environment. It also identifies research needs, priorities and strategies in support of the implementation of D 10. The work of TSG ML also focuses on the specification of monitoring methods through the development of monitoring protocols for litter in the different marine compartments, and for microplastics and litter in biota. Further consideration is being given to monitoring strategies in general and associated costs. Other priorities include the identification of sources of marine litter and a better understanding of the harm caused by marine litter.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: inorganic chemistry
Concepts: litter GES Strategy
Expressions: framework directive methodological standard
Organizations: European Union