30 results found in 6 ms Page 1 of 3
Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management
Created: 2017-05-04 10:23:58.893 by: Generation Service
Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 10:47:22.156 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) mandates that European Union (EU) member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS) based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.
Places: Black Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 11:33:30.618 by: Generation Service
International policy frameworks such as the Common Fisheries Policy and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive define high-level strategic goals for marine ecosystems. Strategic goals are addressed via general and operational management objectives. To add credibility and legitimacy to the development of objectives, for this study stakeholders explored intermediate level ecological, economic and social management objectives for Northeast Atlantic pelagic ecosystems. Stakeholder workshops were undertaken with participants being free to identify objectives based on their own insights and needs. Overall 26 objectives were proposed, with 58% agreement in proposed objectives between two workshops. Based on published evidence for pressure-state links, examples of operational objectives and suitable indicators for each of the 26 objectives were then selected. It is argued that given the strong species-specific links of pelagic species with the environment and the large geographic scale of their life cycles, which contrast to demersal systems, pelagic indicators are needed at the level of species (or stocks) independent of legislative region. Pelagic community indicators may be set at regional scale in some cases. In the evidence-based approach used in this study, the selection of species or region specific operational objectives and indicators was based on demonstrated pressure-state links. Hence observed changes in indicators can reliably inform on appropriate management measures. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On unequal footing: Stakeholder perspectives on the marine strategy framework directive as a mechanism of the ecosystem-based approach to marine management
Created: 2017-05-04 11:07:26.018 by: Generation Service
This article concentrates on five marine sectors active in the marine environment (fisheries, offshore renewable energy, offshore oil and gas, navigation, and coastal tourism) and on non-industry stakeholders represented by environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (eNGOs) and how they have engaged in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) stakeholder consultation process and what they foresee as potential challenges for implementation. The social, economic, and political significance of the five sectors and eNGOs in relation to the MSFD is presented, as well as a description of the stakeholder consultation process as experienced by representatives from the sectors and eNGOs, in addition to an illustration of the EU policy landscape associated with the sectors. Three central themes emerge in relation to implementing the MSFD and the ecosystem-based approach to management in EU marine waters: (a) Boundaries: (b) policy and management coordination: and (c) balancing values and user conflicts have been explored. The paper concludes that from a governance perspective it is clear that the MSFD has not been that well-thought through. The consistency of the overall legal frameworks and specific regulations related to marine management have created legal vagueness and subsequently caused legal uncertainties leading to conflicting policies and regulations having unclear boundaries. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated the dilemmas facing various sectors related to MSFD implementation and shown how unequally prepared different sectors are to participate in this policy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 09:22:43.24 by: Generation Service
The German water management system has changed during the last decade. Initially it was focussing on the management of chemical pollution in water bodies only. This has now shifted to a management system using a holistic approach. The approach considers the entire catchment area and besides the management of chemical pollution takes also into account other anthropogenic pressures, such as structural changes and ecological degradation of waterbodies. This change of management strategy implemented through the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (and initiated in Brussels) continues within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The MSFD requires a cumulative assessment of land-based pressures in combination with the assessment of impacts from human activities at sea. These include (e. g.) threats to fish stock, bycatch and habitat destruction through fishing activities, noise pollution through shipping and ramming activities as well as the operation of offshore wind farms. The following describes the current status of the implementation of the two Directives and will outline similarities and differences between them.
Domains: public authority
Created: 2017-05-04 10:32:50.648 by: Generation Service
This paper will review landmarks in American and European marine noise science and management, reflecting a changing scientific and regulatory focus from acute, near-field effects on beaked whales to impacts on a wider range of species and their \"acoustic habitat\" over broader temporal and spatial scales. Increases in the scale of noise associated with human activities has led to greater levels of research and management. Although mitigation within the United States and Europe is principally aimed at reducing risk from acute effects of individual activities, regulators are moving in significant ways towards cumulative, multi-sectoral impact management. Solutions to be discussed include source-quieting methods and technologies for commercial shipping, pile driving, and seismic survey noise; spatial management through the use of programmatic and strategic environmental assessments, particularly for active sonar; and noise budget caps-for example, as a potential outcome of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive. This paper also will identify the most pressing data needs for conservation management, including data on impacts (e.g., the impacts of offshore windfarm construction and operation on baleen whales), effective mitigation methods and technology (such as noise reduction standards for individual commercial ships), and cumulative effects (including impacts of chronic stress on cetacean morbidity, survival, and reproduction).
Places: United States of America
Public willingness to pay for alternative management regimes of remote marine protected areas in the North Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 10:49:11.589 by: Generation Service
Despite increasing attention paid to the value of marine resources, in particular marine protected areas (MPAs), their economic valuation focuses mainly on use values of ecosystem services such as fishery and tourism. Furthermore, most MPA related studies are carried out for coastal ecosystems, especially tropical coral reefs. The valuation of remote marine ecosystems is rare. The main objective of this paper is to estimate public willingness to pay (WTP) for alternative management regimes of a network of offshore MPAs in the North Sea under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In a baseline valuation study carried out just before the adoption of the MSFD, beach visitors and a random sample of coastal and non-coastal residents were asked for their preferences for two alternative management options of three remote, ecologically sensitive areas with multiple use conflicts. Despite the lack of public awareness and familiarity with the offshore marine areas, a majority of 70% is willing to pay extra tax for their protection. Using a conservative value elicitation procedure, Dutch households are willing to pay on average maximum 0.25% of their annual disposable income to ban access and economic use. This serves as an indicator of what a network of remote MPAs in the MSFD is allowed to cost according to the Dutch tax payer. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: North Sea
Assessment of cumulative human pressures on a coastal area: Integrating information for MPA planning and management
Created: 2017-05-04 10:30:56.823 by: Generation Service
As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts on marine ecosystems is critical for effective marine management and conservation. Human interaction with ecosystems has to be accounted for in order to efficiently implement marine management strategies. In the present study, the main human activities occurring along the mainland Portuguese coast were identified and mapped. The cumulative impact of these activities was calculated in order to assess impacts in different zones, namely in Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and their boundaries. Higher impact values were obtained near the coast, where all the analysed MPAs are located. Furthermore, most MPAs are sorrounded by areas with very high impacts, near the largest urban settlements and the most industrialized coastal sections. These results are the first assessment of cumulative human pressures in this study area as a whole (and with this level of resolution) and might be of great usefulness to overcome the current challenges of sustainable management in marine ecosystems. Knowledge provided by this study strengthens the need for a more integrative approach to design and manage MPAs and can be useful to support the requirements of the MSFD. The approach here developed is also a powerful tool to apply in several contexts of sustainable marine management and can be developed in any geographic area. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 11:06:04.939 by: Generation Service
Many definitions of the ecosystem approach circulate, the common denominator being the system approach which seeks to take the entirety of a marine ecosystem into consideration. As marine ecosystems cover large geographical areas this approach calls for cooperation between the riparian states. This has being acknowledged in EU policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Marine Spatial Planning Directive. Yet implementing the ecosystem approach in practise runs into some operationalisation issues such as the position of regional cooperation between Member States vis a vis the treaty of the European Union: the positioning of the ecosystem approach between fisheries management and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive; the problem of stakeholder involvement and the balancing of ecological and economic concerns: the tension of the need for relative stability and the introduction of possible new models for organising regional cooperation. These issues appear to be like elephants in the room: obvious issues related to the need for regionalisation which apparently remain undiscussed. In this article, based on analyses within a number of European projects and discussions with relevant actors, the needed discussion on how to organise the management of human activities at the appropriate geo-political level matching the scale of the ecosystem, hence institutionalising marine management at the regional level, is initiated. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 11:30:10.786 by: Generation Service
This paper evaluates the European Union (EU) legal framework for the management of marine complex, adaptive systems. The entire EU legal framework, consisting of 12421 Directives, Regulations and Decisions, is reviewed against a framework of reference, grounded on the theoretical approaches of Adaptive Management and Transition Management. According to this framework, marine complex systems management should: (1) be calibrated at the scale of social-ecological systems; (2) aim to achieve or maintain their ecological resilience; and (3) implement iterative, learning-based management strategies, supported by periodical assessments and monitoring. The results show that the EU legislation does not provide a fully coherent framework for the implementation of a complex systems approach to the management of EU marine social-ecological systems. Although the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is a major step towards this purpose, the present research highlights three major limitations: (1) the limited capacity of the MSFD to support the coordination between Member States sharing the same marine region or sub-region; (2) the insufficient characterisation of marine ecological resilience, in particular in relation to socio-economic elements, ecosystem services, human benefits and cross-scale interactions; and (3) the limited capacity of the MSFD to tackle the fragmentation of the EU legal framework and prioritise complexity and ecological resilience over sectorial approaches. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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