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Created: 2017-05-04 11:32:17.295 by: Generation Service
The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a 63-mu m screen, and the living benthic foraminiferal fauna of the > 125 mu m fraction is to be analysed. Splits are to be picked and counted entirely, and all counted foraminifera from at least one replicate per station have to be stored in micropalaeontological slides. Census data, supplementary laboratory data and microslides have to be archived. Advisory recommendations are to sample in autumn, to have a sample size of 50 cm(2) or a tube of 8 cm inner diameter, to use > 70% ethanol as a preservative, rose Bengal at a concentration of 2 grams per litre for staining, and a staining time of at least 14 days. The split size should be defined by a target value of 300 specimens, heavy liquid separation should be avoided, and the 63-125 mu m fraction or deeper sediment levels may be considered in some environments. We are convinced that the application of this protocol by a large number of scientists is a necessary first step to a general acceptance of benthic foraminifera as a reliable tool in bio-monitoring studies. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: marine biology
Concepts: surveys methods recommendations monitoring recommendations foraminifera bio samples surface
Expressions: census data sediment surface
Places: Bengal
Organizations: European Community
Created: 2017-05-04 10:59:42.114 by: Generation Service
In the UK, most marine benthic monitoring is carried out in a piecemeal fashion, funded by different sectors of industry that utilise the marine environment under licence. Monitoring requirements are imposed by licence conditions, which can vary considerably between licences. The UK Government also conducts marine environmental surveys in support of its legislative commitments. The present investigation reviews these different monitoring approaches to highlight whether synergies between them could be developed into an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring. An integrated approach would have ecological benefits, as greater consistency in sampling and analytical protocols would reduce uncertainty in the predictions of impact, and facilitate the assessment of Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The same approach would also be of financial benefit, as spatio-temporal duplication in sampling would be reduced, and the value of acquired data would be Maximised, resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective approach. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: industry
Concepts: monitoring approach approaches
Expressions: benthic monitoring sectors of industry
Places: United Kingdom
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2017-05-04 10:44:36.058 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is an important milestone for the preservation of the European marine environment. However, Member States can find its monitoring requirements challenging, particularly where it regards the definition and implementation of joint monitoring programmes between neighbouring countries. The challenges are even greater in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, where many countries are not members of the European Union and where Regional Sea Conventions face greater difficulties in coordinating monitoring activities. This paper presents the results from two regional workshops, within the framework of IRIS-SES project, which aimed to inform policy-and decision -makers in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea on what key stakeholders, including scientists, academia and local authorities, consider the main gaps, needs and opportunities for the MSFD joint monitoring regarding eutrophication and contaminants. It shows that a bottom-up approach, guided by structured workshops, can be a successful means of enhancing cooperation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: monitoring States Black Sea workshops
Expressions: monitoring requirements member state
Places: Black Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:57:06.289 by: Generation Service
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides an important legislative opportunity to promote and implement an integrated approach for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground-waters. The transitional waters constitute a central piece as they are usually under high environmental pressure and by their inherent characteristics present monitoring challenges. Integrating water quality monitoring with biological monitoring can increase the cost-effectiveness of monitoring efforts. One way of doing this is with biomarkers, which effectively integrate physical-chemical status and biological quality elements, dealing holistically with adverse consequences on the health of water bodies. The new Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) already incorporates the biomarker approach. Given the recent activities of OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize existing monitoring guidelines between MSFD and WFD the use of similar methodologies should be fostered. To illustrate the potential of the biomarker approach, juveniles of flounder (Platichthys flesus) were used to evaluate the quality of the Minho river-estuary water bodies. The use ofjuveniles instead of adults eliminates several confounding factors such changes on the biological responses associated with reproduction. Here, a panel of well-established biomarkers, EROD, AChE, SOD, CAT, GST, IPO, ENA and FACs (1-Hydroxyrene) were selected and measured along with a gradient of different physical conditions, and integrated with.trace elements characterization on both biota and sediments. In general, a clear profile along the water bodies was found, with low seasonal and spatial variation, consistent with a low impacted area. Overall, the results support the use of both the battery of biomarkers and the use of juvenile flounders in the monitoring of the water quality status within the WFD. (C), 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: biology
Concepts: biomarkers waters water monitoring
Expressions: physical-chemical status water quality status
People: EROD
Places: Minho river
Created: 2017-05-04 11:34:12.565 by: Generation Service
In recent years, many studies have evaluated the effects of anthropogenic acoustic disturbance on marine organisms. Sounds associated with shipping, seismic surveys, sonar, and many other such sources induce several types of effect on fish and marine mammals. In this regard, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC has not only defined underwater acoustic noise as \"the intentional or accidental introduction of acoustic energy in the water column from impulsive and diffuse sources\", but has also expressly identified it as a form of pollution. In 2014, the first Italian proposal has been defined with the aim of developing a widespread monitoring plan for sub-regions in European Union waters with respect to two different sub-programs concerning impulsive (Descriptor 11.1) and continuous low frequency (Descriptor 11.2) sounds. The objective of Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the implementation of a recording system for temporal-spatial data regarding impulsive sound sources arising from anthropogenic activities. The pressure, for Descriptor 11.1, is measured by evaluating the source level, or a suitable proxy for anthropogenic sound sources, measured over the frequency band 10 Hz-10 kHz (and up to 40 kHz for cetacean detection), that could have an impact on marine organisms. The Descriptor 11.2 would monitor trends in the ambient noise level within the 1/3 octave bands 63 and 125 Hz (centre frequency) (re 1 mu Pa RMS; average noise level in these octave bands over a year) via observation stations. This monitoring plan aims to obtain noise maps of sea regions for the frequency band 10 Hz-10 kHz (and up to 40 kHz for cetacean detection) by improving existing geophysical/acoustic observation stations, e.g. those of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), as well as other medium- and long-term monitoring stations. The program also wants to define the level of damage caused by underwater noise, using underwater noise as an example to evaluate the impact of this type of noise on different marine organisms. Maritime spatial planning (MSP) and integrated coastal management (ICZM) have to employ an ecosystem-based approach that ensures the protection of the natural resources and provides the basis for carrying out the various monitoring activities. The Italian monitoring proposal on Descriptor 11 of Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was used in order to analyze the strategic vision of the integrated maritime policy (IMP) between MSFD and MSP programs in terms of achieving Good Environmental Status (GES). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: marine biology geography
Concepts: Descriptor monitoring noise Directive organisms proposal sources
Expressions: framework directive planning directive
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2018-06-20 11:29:53.82 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is an important milestone for the preservation of the European marine environment. However, Member States can find its monitoring requirements challenging, particularly where it regards the definition and implementation of joint monitoring programmes between neighbouring countries. The challenges are even greater in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, where many countries are not members of the European Union and where Regional Sea Conventions face greater difficulties in coordinating monitoring activities. This paper presents the results from two regional workshops, within the framework of IRIS-SES project, which aimed to inform policy-and decision -makers in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea on what key stakeholders, including scientists, academia and local authorities, consider the main gaps, needs and opportunities for the MSFD joint monitoring regarding eutrophication and contaminants. It shows that a bottom-up approach, guided by structured workshops, can be a successful means of enhancing cooperation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: monitoring States Black Sea workshops
Expressions: monitoring requirements member state
Places: Black Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2018-06-20 11:37:01.994 by: Generation Service
The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a 63-mu m screen, and the living benthic foraminiferal fauna of the > 125 mu m fraction is to be analysed. Splits are to be picked and counted entirely, and all counted foraminifera from at least one replicate per station have to be stored in micropalaeontological slides. Census data, supplementary laboratory data and microslides have to be archived. Advisory recommendations are to sample in autumn, to have a sample size of 50 cm(2) or a tube of 8 cm inner diameter, to use > 70% ethanol as a preservative, rose Bengal at a concentration of 2 grams per litre for staining, and a staining time of at least 14 days. The split size should be defined by a target value of 300 specimens, heavy liquid separation should be avoided, and the 63-125 mu m fraction or deeper sediment levels may be considered in some environments. We are convinced that the application of this protocol by a large number of scientists is a necessary first step to a general acceptance of benthic foraminifera as a reliable tool in bio-monitoring studies. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: marine biology
Concepts: surveys methods recommendations monitoring recommendations foraminifera bio samples surface
Expressions: census data sediment surface
Places: Bengal
Organizations: European Community
Created: 2018-06-20 11:37:20.418 by: Generation Service
In recent years, many studies have evaluated the effects of anthropogenic acoustic disturbance on marine organisms. Sounds associated with shipping, seismic surveys, sonar, and many other such sources induce several types of effect on fish and marine mammals. In this regard, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC has not only defined underwater acoustic noise as \"the intentional or accidental introduction of acoustic energy in the water column from impulsive and diffuse sources\", but has also expressly identified it as a form of pollution. In 2014, the first Italian proposal has been defined with the aim of developing a widespread monitoring plan for sub-regions in European Union waters with respect to two different sub-programs concerning impulsive (Descriptor 11.1) and continuous low frequency (Descriptor 11.2) sounds. The objective of Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the implementation of a recording system for temporal-spatial data regarding impulsive sound sources arising from anthropogenic activities. The pressure, for Descriptor 11.1, is measured by evaluating the source level, or a suitable proxy for anthropogenic sound sources, measured over the frequency band 10 Hz-10 kHz (and up to 40 kHz for cetacean detection), that could have an impact on marine organisms. The Descriptor 11.2 would monitor trends in the ambient noise level within the 1/3 octave bands 63 and 125 Hz (centre frequency) (re 1 mu Pa RMS; average noise level in these octave bands over a year) via observation stations. This monitoring plan aims to obtain noise maps of sea regions for the frequency band 10 Hz-10 kHz (and up to 40 kHz for cetacean detection) by improving existing geophysical/acoustic observation stations, e.g. those of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) and the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), as well as other medium- and long-term monitoring stations. The program also wants to define the level of damage caused by underwater noise, using underwater noise as an example to evaluate the impact of this type of noise on different marine organisms. Maritime spatial planning (MSP) and integrated coastal management (ICZM) have to employ an ecosystem-based approach that ensures the protection of the natural resources and provides the basis for carrying out the various monitoring activities. The Italian monitoring proposal on Descriptor 11 of Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was used in order to analyze the strategic vision of the integrated maritime policy (IMP) between MSFD and MSP programs in terms of achieving Good Environmental Status (GES). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: marine biology geography
Concepts: Descriptor monitoring noise Directive organisms proposal sources
Expressions: framework directive planning directive
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2018-06-20 11:32:16.167 by: Generation Service
In the UK, most marine benthic monitoring is carried out in a piecemeal fashion, funded by different sectors of industry that utilise the marine environment under licence. Monitoring requirements are imposed by licence conditions, which can vary considerably between licences. The UK Government also conducts marine environmental surveys in support of its legislative commitments. The present investigation reviews these different monitoring approaches to highlight whether synergies between them could be developed into an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring. An integrated approach would have ecological benefits, as greater consistency in sampling and analytical protocols would reduce uncertainty in the predictions of impact, and facilitate the assessment of Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The same approach would also be of financial benefit, as spatio-temporal duplication in sampling would be reduced, and the value of acquired data would be Maximised, resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective approach. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: industry
Concepts: monitoring approach approaches
Expressions: benthic monitoring sectors of industry
Places: United Kingdom
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2018-06-20 11:31:51.662 by: Generation Service
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides an important legislative opportunity to promote and implement an integrated approach for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground-waters. The transitional waters constitute a central piece as they are usually under high environmental pressure and by their inherent characteristics present monitoring challenges. Integrating water quality monitoring with biological monitoring can increase the cost-effectiveness of monitoring efforts. One way of doing this is with biomarkers, which effectively integrate physical-chemical status and biological quality elements, dealing holistically with adverse consequences on the health of water bodies. The new Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) already incorporates the biomarker approach. Given the recent activities of OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize existing monitoring guidelines between MSFD and WFD the use of similar methodologies should be fostered. To illustrate the potential of the biomarker approach, juveniles of flounder (Platichthys flesus) were used to evaluate the quality of the Minho river-estuary water bodies. The use ofjuveniles instead of adults eliminates several confounding factors such changes on the biological responses associated with reproduction. Here, a panel of well-established biomarkers, EROD, AChE, SOD, CAT, GST, IPO, ENA and FACs (1-Hydroxyrene) were selected and measured along with a gradient of different physical conditions, and integrated with.trace elements characterization on both biota and sediments. In general, a clear profile along the water bodies was found, with low seasonal and spatial variation, consistent with a low impacted area. Overall, the results support the use of both the battery of biomarkers and the use of juvenile flounders in the monitoring of the water quality status within the WFD. (C), 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: biology
Concepts: biomarkers waters water monitoring
Expressions: physical-chemical status water quality status
People: EROD
Places: Minho river