32 results found in 4 ms Page 1 of 4
Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management
Created: 2017-05-04 10:23:58.893 by: Generation Service
Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assessment of the environmental status in the Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean): from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 10:34:05.443 by: Generation Service
A tested methodology is presented to assess the environmental status Sensu on the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) based on the data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD). A decision tree developed by Borja et al. (2004) for integrating WFD results was applied after some adaptations. Modifications were included to evaluate the physicochemical status based on the eutrophication index developed for the Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results regarding the hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was assessed based on the concentrations of the heavy metals in water. Evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for the phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate the MSFD needs. Results from the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating the classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in the water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk for achieving the 'good' status were found in the 'moderate' status. The benthos was found to be the element showing the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weightage in the decision tree. The benthos quality and, in some limited cases, the eutrophication index largely determined the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was revealed by the macroalgae. All the indicators used correlated with the water and sediment parameters, although the benthos correlated better with the sediment factors while the phytoplankton and eutrophication index correlated with the water column parameters.
Places: Eastern Mediterranean
Marine mammals and good environmental status: science, policy and society; challenges and opportunities
Created: 2017-05-04 11:23:00.054 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive has become the key instrument for marine conservation in European seas. We review its implementation, focusing on cetacean biodiversity, using the examples of Spain and the Regional Seas Convention, OSPAR. The MSFD has been widely criticised for legal vagueness, lack of coordination, uncertainty about funding, and poor governance; its future role within EU Integrated Maritime Policy remains unclear. Nevertheless, the first stages of the process have run broadly to schedule: current status, environmental objectives and indicators have been described and the design of monitoring programmes is in progress, drawing on experience with other environmental legislation. The MSFD is now entering its critical phase, with lack of funding for monitoring, limited scope for management interventions, and uncertainty about how conservation objectives will be reconciled with the needs of other marine and maritime sectors, being among the main concerns. Clarity in governance, about the roles of the EU, Member States, Regional Seas Conventions and stakeholders, is needed to ensure success. However, even if (as seems likely) good environmental status cannot be achieved by 2020, significant steps will have been taken to place environmental sustainability centre-stage in the development of Integrated Maritime Policy for EU seas.
Organizations: European Union
The implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive - baptism of fire for the legislative construct of federal state variance legislation?
Created: 2017-05-04 09:16:47.24 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EG; MSFD) creates a regulatory framework for action by all EU member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status in all European seas by 2020. For this reason, all marine states of the EU must implement the Directive by developing and implementing national strategies. To this effect, the MSFD assigns EU member states a major programme of activities in a very tight timeframe. Hence, by 2010, the Directive should actually be transposed into national law and EU-wide criteria and methodological standards should be laid down (including for marine species and habitats) by a range of working groups in the EU Commission and under regional marine conventions. Moreover tasks have to be completed by 2012. Those tasks include an initial assessment of marine waters, the determination of good environmental status and the establishment of environmental targets. Besides Member states must report by 2013 among other things on progress in establishing marine protected areas. Furthermore monitoring programmes must be established and implemented by 2014, and programmes of measures must be developed by 2015 and must enter into operation by 2016. Finally a good environmental status is to be achieved in all European seas by 2020. This contribution critically attends to the recently inured act modifying the German Federal Water Act 2010 as amended and promulgated on 6th October 2011 in order to implement the MSFD into national German Law. Thereby the focal point is especially on the question, whether the newly created legal construct of an \"alternative legislation\", used by the federal states, passes its \"trial by fire\".
Organizations: European Union
Efficacy of adapted estuarine fish-based multimetric indices as tools for evaluating ecological status of the marine environment
Created: 2017-05-04 10:21:13.818 by: Generation Service
The assessment of ecological status of marine fish communities required by the marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) emphasises the need for fish-based ecological indices in marine waters. In this study we adapt five estuarine multimetric indices to the marine environment and apply them in three types of substrates, analysing the metrics responsible for the obtained patterns of ecological status. The results show inefficiency of the community degradation index (CDI) and the biological health index (BHI) in ecological status assessment and disagreement between the estuarine biotic integrity index (EBI), the estuarine fish community index (EFCI) and the transitional fish classification index (TFCI). Analysis of individual metrics suggests lack of representativeness and consideration for the particularities of each substrate's typical fish communities. None of the tested indices were efficient on the marine environment, urging the need for new marine indices that account for differences between types of substrate and depth. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An environmental assessment of risk in achieving good environmental status to support regional prioritisation of management in Europe
Created: 2017-05-04 09:56:24.867 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in Europe's Seas. The requirement for regional sea authorities to identify and prioritise issues for management has meant that standardized methods to assess the current level of departure from GES are needed. The methodology presented here provides a means by which existing information describing the status of ecosystem components of a regional sea can be used to determine the effort required to achieve GES. A risk assessment framework was developed to score departure from GES for 10 out of the 11 GES descriptors, based on proposed definitions of 'good' status, and current knowledge of environmental status in each of the four regional seas (North-East Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea). This provides an approach for regional evaluation of environmental issues and national prioritisation of conservation objectives. Departure from GES definitions is described as 'high', 'moderate' or low' and the implications for management options and national policy decisions are discussed. While the criteria used in this study were developed specifically for application toward MSFD objectives, with modification the approach could be applied to evaluate other high-level social, economic or environmental objectives. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 10:35:27.375 by: Generation Service
Created: 2017-05-04 09:55:42.972 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy has been developed and is being implemented, with the objective to deliver \"Good Environmental Status\" by 2020. A pragmatic way forward has been achieved through the development of 11 \"qualitative descriptors\". In an attempt to identify gaps in MSFD, regarding the data on large marine vertebrates, the SETAC - Italian Branch organised a workshop in Siena (IT). Particular attention was paid to the qualitative descriptors 8 (contaminants and pollution effects) and 10 (marine litter). The specific remit was to discuss the potential use of large marine vertebrates (from large pelagic fish, sea turtles, sea birds and cetaceans) in determining the environmental status of pelagic marine ecosystems. During the workshop it emerged that large pelagic fish may be especially useful for monitoring short- to medium-term changes in pelagic ecosystems, while cetaceans provided a more integrated view over the long-term. A theme that strongly emerged was the broad recognition that biomarkers offer real potential for the determination of good ecological status detecting the \"undesirable biological effects\" (indicator for descriptor 8). (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Domains: marine biology
Created: 2017-05-04 10:02:46.432 by: Generation Service
In the Mediterranean region Cymodocea nodose is widely distributed throughout shallow sites. Therefore, a correct assessment of the status of its meadows is of great importance for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the Habitat Directive (HD), especially for areas where Posidonia oceanica meadows (the most frequently used indicator in the Mediterranean Sea) are rare or not present. The previously proposed index for the evaluation of the status of C. nodosa meadows (CymoSkew) is based on In-transformed relative frequencies of photosynthetic leaf lengths, which we believe is statistically questionable. Therefore, we further improved the methodology and developed a new index named MediSkew, where In-transformation is applied to raw data of leaf lengths. More specifically, the index is a combination of two metrics, both based on C nodosa leaf length: deviation from the reference median length (Medi-) and skewness of the length frequency distribution (-Skew), though greater importance was assigned to the first. To develop the classification criteria for the assessment of the status, also a Pressure Index for Seagrass Meadows (PISM), for the evaluation of pressure impact relationships, was developed. The MediSkew is meant to be a rapid screening method for wide areas, therefore the index should be tested for the assessment of the status of C nodosa meadows throughout Mediterranean coastal waters. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: A methodological approach for the assessment of environmental status, from the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay)
Created: 2017-05-04 11:25:22.254 by: Generation Service
The implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is directing European marine research towards the coordinated and integrated assessment of sea environmental status, following the ecosystem-based approach. The MSFD uses a set of 11 descriptors which, together, summarise the way in which the whole system functions. As such, the European Commission has proposed an extensive set of indicators, to assess environmental status. Hence, taking account of the large amount of data available for the Basque coast (southern Bay of Biscay), together with a recent proposal for assessment within the MSFD, an integrated environmental status assessment approach is developed (for the first time) in this contribution. The strengths and weaknesses of the method, combined with proposals from the MSFD, are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: Bay of Biscay
Organizations: European Commission
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