63 results found in 5 ms Page 1 of 7
Connectivity and Dispersal Patterns of Protected Biogenic Reefs: Implications for the Conservation of Modiolus modiolus (L.) in the Irish Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 11:34:53.695 by: Generation Service
Biogenic reefs created by Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758) (horse mussel reefs) are marine habitats which support high levels of species biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services. Currently, M. modiolus reefs are listed as a threatened and/or declining species and habitat in all OSPAR regions and thus are highlighted as a conservation priority under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Determining patterns of larval dispersal and genetic connectivity of remaining horse mussel populations can inform management efforts and is a critical component of effective marine spatial planning (MSP). Larval dispersal patterns and genetic structure were determined for several M. modiolus bed populations in the Irish Sea including those in Wales (North Pen Llyn), Isle of Man (Point of Ayre) and Northern Ireland (Ards Peninsula and Strangford Lough). Simulations of larval dispersal suggested extant connectivity between populations within the Irish Sea. Results from the genetic analysis carried out using newly developed microsatellite DNA markers were consistent with those of the biophysical model. Results indicated moderately significant differentiation between the Northern Ireland populations and those in the Isle of Man and Wales. Simulations of larval dispersal over a 30 day pelagic larval duration (PLD) suggest that connectivity over a spatial scale of 150km is possible between some source and sink populations. However, it appears unlikely that larvae from Northern Ireland will connect directly with sites on the Llyn or Isle of Man. It also appears unlikely that larvae from the Llyn connect directly to any of the other sites. Taken together the data establishes a baseline for underpinning management and conservation of these important and threatened marine habitats in the southern part of the known range.
Places: Isle of Man
Marine biological valuation mapping of the Basque continental shelf (Bay of Biscay), within the context of marine spatial planning
Created: 2017-05-04 10:22:33.434 by: Generation Service
Marine Biological Valuation (BV) has increased in importance in recent years, due to the need to establish accurate maps of biodiversity value. However, there have been few exercises undertaken in Southern Europe, in putting a value on marine biodiversity whilst at the same time looking at several biological components. This paper presents the complete Biological Valuation Map (BVM) of the Basque continental shelf and estuaries, using the methodology developed for the Belgian Continental Shelf. It includes all available biological data (zooplankton, macroalgae, macrobenthos, demersal fish, seabirds and cetaceans), from 2003 to 2010. BVMs aim to compile all available biological and ecological information for a selected study area, allocating an integrated intrinsic biological value to the subzones within the study area. Here, the results highlight specific areas (such as Jaizkibel or Cap Breton Canyon), as having high or very high integrated BV, using all of the components. Furthermore, some biodiversity 'hotspots' have been identified, according to a specific ecosystem component (e.g. mid-parts of the Oka estuary, for macroalgae, and the Cap Breton Canyon, for cetaceans). Comparison with the results obtained from other European countries, and with previously high-importance delimited zones within the study area, showed similar spatial trends and patterns. Therefore, the objectives of this contribution are: (i) to analyse and establish a spatial ecological value map of the continental shelf of the Basque Country (southern Bay of Biscay), using present BV methods; (ii) to compare the results obtained to other European countries, and (iii) to explore the application of these results to the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requirements. This map can serve as a baseline for future MSP and can also be used for the determination of the environmental status, within the MSFD, for the qualitative descriptor 1 (biodiversity). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: Bay of Biscay
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2017-05-04 09:59:42.762 by: Generation Service
To date there has been no evaluation of the capabilities of the Baltic Sea ecosystem models to provide information as outlined by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. This work aims to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring the modelling potential of nine Baltic Sea ecosystem models to support this specific European policy and, in particular, models' capabilities to inform on marine biodiversity. Several links are found between the Model-Derived Indicators and some of the relevant biodiversity-related descriptors (i.e. biological diversity and food webs), and pressures (i.e. interference with hydrological processes, nutrient and organic matter enrichment and marine acidification). However several gaps remain, in particular in the limited representation of habitats other than the pelagic that the models are able to address for descriptor sea-floor integrity and inability to assess descriptor non-indigenous species. The general outcome is that the Baltic Sea models considered do not adequately cover all the requested needs of the MSFD, but can potentially do so to a certain extent, while for some descriptors/criteria/indicators/pressures new indicators and/or modelling techniques need to be developed in order to satisfactorily address the requirement of the MSFD and assess the environmental status of the Baltic Sea. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Places: Baltic Sea
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Using biological effects tools to define Good Environmental Status under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 09:50:19.153 by: Generation Service
The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status (GES), such as demonstrating that \"Concentrations of contaminants are at levels not giving rise to pollution effects\" (GES Descriptor 8). This paper discusses the combined approach of monitoring chemical contaminant levels, along side biological effect measurements relating to the effect of pollutants, for undertaking assessments of GES across European marine regions. We outline the minimum standards that biological effects tools should meet if they are to be used for defining GES in relation to Descriptor 8 and describe the current international initiatives underway to develop assessment criteria for these biological effects techniques. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 10:34:44.77 by: Generation Service
A review of the present state and future perspectives of the fishery in the Bulgarian marine part of the Black sea basin is presented. Following the approach suggested by the European Union (2008/56/EC) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), particular species may be good indicators of specific environmental factors in their local environment. It is advisable to set the indicators for monitoring the healthy state of a marine fisheries ecosystem, concerning both pelagic and benthos organisms before making a suggestions and assessments about any given stock. Formal decision rules using these indicators for maintenance of the fishery ecosystem in a productive condition, and for stock recovery, need to be urgently implemented. In the present paper the example with sprat stock in the Black sea was emphasised. It was found that one of the main objectives for effective and sustainable management of the fish stocks is to make regular annual assessment of the parental stock biomass, length and weight growth, age determination, mortality estimation and reproductive potential estimation. Levels of fishing that break normal productivity of the given stock and to far-reaching effects caused by other environmental variations and anthropogenic activities.
Places: Black Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 11:33:30.618 by: Generation Service
International policy frameworks such as the Common Fisheries Policy and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive define high-level strategic goals for marine ecosystems. Strategic goals are addressed via general and operational management objectives. To add credibility and legitimacy to the development of objectives, for this study stakeholders explored intermediate level ecological, economic and social management objectives for Northeast Atlantic pelagic ecosystems. Stakeholder workshops were undertaken with participants being free to identify objectives based on their own insights and needs. Overall 26 objectives were proposed, with 58% agreement in proposed objectives between two workshops. Based on published evidence for pressure-state links, examples of operational objectives and suitable indicators for each of the 26 objectives were then selected. It is argued that given the strong species-specific links of pelagic species with the environment and the large geographic scale of their life cycles, which contrast to demersal systems, pelagic indicators are needed at the level of species (or stocks) independent of legislative region. Pelagic community indicators may be set at regional scale in some cases. In the evidence-based approach used in this study, the selection of species or region specific operational objectives and indicators was based on demonstrated pressure-state links. Hence observed changes in indicators can reliably inform on appropriate management measures. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
An integrated approach for bioaccumulation assessment in mussels: Towards the development of Environmental Quality Standards for biota
Created: 2017-05-04 10:30:01.604 by: Generation Service
The possible use of chemical concentrations measured in mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) for compliance checking against Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) established for biota is analyzed with the help of an integrated model. The model consists of a 3D planktonic module that provides biomasses in the different compartments, i.e., phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria; a 3D fate module that provides the concentrations of contaminants in the water column and in the sediments; and a 3D bioaccumulation module that calculates internal concentrations in relevant biotic compartments. These modules feed a 0D growth and bioaccumulation module for mussels, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) approach. The integrated model has been applied to study the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Thau lagoon (France). The model correctly predicts the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in mussels as a function of the concentrations in the water column and in phytoplankton. It also sheds light on the origin of the complexity associated with the use of EQS for biota and their conversion to water column concentrations. The integrated model is potentially useful for regulatory purposes, for example in the context of the European Water Framework (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directives (MSFD). (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Organizations: Elsevier Inc.
Created: 2017-05-04 09:41:57.286 by: Generation Service
The quality of biological data has gained recognition as an essential part of international monitoring programmes, in response to the demand for strategic environmental evaluations such as the EU WFD, the MSFD and informed decisions for environmental sound management. The paper presents the results of an intercalibration exercise among four Black Sea phytoplankton laboratories (NIMRD-RO, IBSS-LTKR, IO-RAS - RUS and IO-BAS - BLG) conducted under SESAME FP6 Project with the objectives: 1) to assess the degree of comparability of phytoplankton and chlorophyll a data produced by routine in-house methods; 2) to formulate recommendations for progress towards harmonization of the research methodology in the Black Sea. The statistical treatment of the results reveal that at the level of total phytoplankton abundance and biomass as well as chlorophyll a the data were in a good agreement, while for some taxonomic classes (Prymnesiophyccae and small flagellates) the differences were significant. The counted sample volume proves essential for detection of species diversity and the methods of species specific biovolume measurements - for the total biomass. As a follow up Guidelines for QC/QA of phytoplankton data and check-list with suggested shapes for biovolume calculation were produced under UP-Grade Black Sea SCENE FP7 Project that offer key options for progress.
Places: Black Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 09:21:16.643 by: Generation Service
The need to implement Ecosystem-Based-Management (EBM) in marine ecosystems and the recent adoption of European Union directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), make indicators that are able to describe ecosystem state particularly relevant. The trophodynamic context is promising in that it can define integrative ecosystem indicators from modelling and field data. Here we analyze energy accumulation across trophic levels (TLs), i. e. the accumulation of energy in various biomass components of an ecosystem. The analysis of biomass accumulation across TLs, previously applied to surveys and model output data, was applied to a time series (1970 to 2010) of landings in the Mediterranean Sea and its 8 sub-areas. The standardized cumulative biomass versus TL curves for each year were fit to a logistic function, revealing that the accumulation pattern was detectable using landings data and confirming prior patterns. Parameters describing the curve shape, i. e. basal biomass, inflection point and steepness, were considered as possible indicators for assessing changes of ecosystem state through time. These parameters were able to detect systems modification in terms of both space and time and exhibited differential sensitivity to external drivers. The inflection point was mainly fishery-driven, whereas steepness seems to respond to environmental features, indicating an ability to discriminate across major ecosystem drivers. The application of Monte Carlo un certainty analysis showed that all of the parameters are sufficiently robust to possible sampling errors in the TL assignment to the different taxa. Collectively, these results confirm the robustness of patterns for cumulative biomass across TL curves seen in a growing number of marine eco systems. These emergent features suggest that this approach could produce useful ecosystem indicators for the implementation of EBM and the MSFD.
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 10:08:56.588 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires assessment of environmental status in relation to changing human pressures. In this study taxonomic composition of beach wrack is proposed as an indicator for the assessment of coastal sea benthic macrovegetation biodiversity within the context of the MSFD. Based on the relationships between eutrophication metrics and taxonomic structure of benthic vegetation, the Beach Wrack Macrovegetation Index (BMI) was developed and tested as a case study of the northern Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea). The index showed a higher benthic biodiversity in areas with higher water transparency, lower nutrient concentrations, and lower Baltic Sea Pressure Index values. Compared to commonly used metrics, the BMI is an easy-to-use and cost-effective method, which can be further incorporated within a citizen science project. The method can be recommended for the areas that are not affected by strong tides or persistent currents. Boreal summer is the preferred season for sampling because then the impact of hydrodynamic effects on the structure of stormcast is the lowest.
Places: Baltic Sea
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