48 results found in 3 ms Page 1 of 5
Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management
Created: 2017-05-04 10:23:58.893 by: Generation Service
Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Created: 2017-05-04 10:03:24.525 by: Generation Service
Places: Baltic Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 10:45:24.414 by: Generation Service
The permanent presence of microplastics in the marine environment is considered a global threat to several marine animals. Heavy metals and microplastics are typically included in two different classes of pollutants but the interaction between these two stressors is poorly understood. During 14 days of experimental manipulation, we examined the adsorption of two heavy metals, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), leached from an antifouling paint to virgin polystyrene (PS) beads and aged polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fragments in seawater. We demonstrated that heavy metals were released from the antifouling paint to the water and both microplastic types adsorbed the two heavy metals. This adsorption kinetics was described using partition coefficients and mathematical models. Partition coefficients between pellets and water ranged between 650 and 850 for Cu on PS and PVC, respectively. The adsorption of Cu was significantly greater in PVC fragments than in PS, probably due to higher surface area and polarity of PVC. Concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly on PVC and PS over the course of the experiment with the exception of Zn on PS. As a result, we show a significant interaction between these types of microplastics and heavy metals, which can have implications for marine life and the environment. These results strongly support recent findings where plastics can play a key role as vectors for heavy metal ions in the marine system. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of monitoring marine litter and heavy metals, mainly associated with antifouling paints, particularly in the framework of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assessment of biomarkers in Mytilus edulis to determine good environmental status for implementation of MSFD in Ireland
Created: 2017-05-04 09:54:56.519 by: Generation Service
Candidate OSPAR/ICES recommended biomarkers at the level of the individual in Mytilus edulis for determination of good environmental status for MSFD were evaluated against contaminant levels at sites around Ireland. The sites chosen ranged from moderate to low pollution levels, but the actual ranking of the sites varied according to the contaminant levels present. At the most contaminated site, Cork, 4 out of 16 contaminants exceeded the EAC, while at Shannon, no EACs were exceeded. The SOS assay suggested that Cork was the healthiest site with a LT50 of 17.6 days, while SOS for Shannon was 15.6 days. Likewise, condition factors varied among sites and did not always correspond to contaminant-based status. There may be uncertainty in assigning status around the not good:good boundary. This raises potential difficulties not only in the biomarker/contaminant load relationship but also in the reliability of the biomarkers themselves and hence barriers meeting compliance levels. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Participation and post-normal science in practice? Reality check for hazardous chemicals management in the European marine environment
Created: 2017-05-04 10:39:30.544 by: Generation Service
This study analyses whether science-policy interactions linked to the management of hazardous chemicals in the European marine environment have developed in accordance with general theories on public involvement in policymaking in general and post-normal science (PNS) in particular. Special attention is given to a comparison between key EU policy frameworks, namely the \"polluter-oriented\" registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) and the \"environment-oriented\" Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), based on in-depth analysis of key policy-related documents and interviews with scientists and policy actors. The results outline that in spite of a substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wide and ambitious public involvement, current participation and deliberation practices are rather undeveloped in the studied EU policy frameworks. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the introduction of more radical approaches to knowledge co-production and participation (like PNS) would require epistemological, institutional and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future, at least not in respect to chemicals management. This study generates empirical data with regard to the management of chemicals in the European marine environment, specifically data on participation, the role of science, and uncertainty treatment at the science-policy interface. These data provide empirical information that can be used by environmental managers involved in the development of EU marine policy. At the same time, the results can be used theoretically to reflect on and problematise the current state of wider public participation in EU environmental policies and PNS development in particular cases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: European Union
Environmental Quality of Italian Marine Water by Means of Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Descriptor 9
Created: 2017-05-04 11:36:57.569 by: Generation Service
ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region) on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates). As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D. Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms) and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates), which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES) is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell's grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good.
Organizations: Environment Ministry
An in situ intercomparison exercise on passive samplers for monitoring metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface waters
Created: 2017-05-04 09:39:41.237 by: Generation Service
An intercomparison exercise on passive samplers (PSs) was organized in summer 2010 to measure selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides in surface waters. Various PSs were used and compared at two river sites and one marine lagoon. A total of 24 laboratories participated. We present selected significant results from this exercise, including discussion on quality assurance and quality control for PSs, the interlaboratory variability of field blanks, time weighted average water concentrations and their uncertainties, the representativity of samples from Diffusive Gradient in Thin film, the ability of PSs to achieve lower limits of detection, PAH fingerprints in various PSs compared with spot samples, and the relevance of the permeability reference compound approach to the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler with pesticides. These in situ intercomparison exercises should enable progress on the harmonization of practices for use of passive sampling, especially for priority chemical monitoring and regulatory programs in compliance with the European Union's Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-09-26 15:03:44.286 by: Sergio Ferraresi
Expressions: test create test
Created: 2017-10-05 12:54:26.905 by: Sergio Ferraresi
Expressions: test create test
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