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Created: 2017-05-23 12:36:26.974 by: Generation Service
Oficial Daily Hazard Assessment for:2016-11-26
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: Flood risk days November Warnings
Expressions: surface waterThe surface water flood risk flood warning November November November November November flood guidance statement
Places: England
Organizations: Meteorological Office
Created: 2017-05-04 09:23:21.086 by: Generation Service
The sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystem services is dependent on achieving and maintaining an adequate ecosystem state to prevent undue deterioration. Within the European Union, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires member states to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS), specified in terms of 11 descriptors. We analyzed the complexity of social-ecological factors to identify common critical issues that are likely to influence the achievement of GEnS in the Northeast Atlantic (NEA) more broadly, using three case studies. A conceptual model developed using a soft systems approach highlights the complexity of social and ecological phenomena that influence, and are likely to continue to influence, the state of ecosystems in the NEA. The development of the conceptual model raised four issues that complicate the implementation of the MSFD, the majority of which arose in the Pressures and State sections of the model: variability in the system, cumulative effects, ecosystem resilience, and conflicting policy targets. The achievement of GEnS targets for the marine environment requires the recognition and negotiation of trade-offs across a broad policy landscape involving a wide variety of stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Furthermore, potential cumulative effects may introduce uncertainty, particularly in selecting appropriate management measures. There also are endogenous pressures that society cannot control. This uncertainty is even more obvious when variability within the system, e.g., climate change, is accounted for. Also, questions related to the resilience of the affected ecosystem to specific pressures must be raised, despite a lack of current knowledge. Achieving good management and reaching GEnS require multidisciplinary assessments. The soft systems approach provides one mechanism for bringing multidisciplinary information together to look at the problems in a different light.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: ecosystem systems GEnS effects targets Status
Expressions: ecosystem service achievement of gens target
Places: Atlantic Ocean
Organizations: National Endowment for the Arts
Created: 2017-05-04 09:33:31.176 by: Generation Service
In its decision (20101477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socioeconomic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of \"ingestion\" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography ecology
Concepts: litter composition amount species Trends impact
Expressions: socioeconomic impact entanglement ingestion
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Organizations: European Union European Community
Created: 2017-05-04 10:19:01.512 by: Generation Service
There are two ways of assessing the costs of environmental degradation: as the costs associated with the loss of benefits resulting from the degradation of natural capital, and as the maintenance costs required to compensate for the actual or potential degradation of natural capital. The first of these methods is based on the Total Economic Value (TEV) of benefits forgone because of the depletion of ecosystem services delivered by marine biodiversity. The second method is based on the costs required to maintain a good state of marine biodiversity, one which makes it possible to deliver ecosystem services. This paper gives an illustration of this second approach. It details how these maintenance costs have been calculated in the initial assessment of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in France. It addresses nine problem areas - corresponding to nine sources of environmental degradation - from non-native invasive species to oil spills. It gives a total figure for these degradation costs (around 2 billion Euros). The results are compared with those of other Member States who have taken similar approaches in the context of the MSFD. One key conclusion is that it is not really possible to make meaningful comparisons at this stage, since the methods of data collection and the nature of the costs are very different. The need to develop such assessments in a standardised way is noted. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: costs maintenance methods capital services
Expressions: ecosystem service maintenance cost
Places: France
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2017-05-04 11:23:34.309 by: Generation Service
The FP7 funded TROPOS project approach is to develop a modular multi-use platform for use in deep waters, coupling several activities, amongst which aquaculture production and renewable energy conversion, with a focus on the Mediterranean, tropical and sub-tropical regions. In this paper, the environmental monitoring, safety and security aspects of designing multi-purpose offshore platforms are considered. Contributions of the FP7 NeXOS and PERSEUS projects further emphasise the innovations available for enhancing this approach.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology geography
Concepts: Projects security environmental monitoring PERSEUS
Expressions: Perseus project platforms environmental monitoring
Created: 2017-05-04 10:34:05.443 by: Generation Service
A tested methodology is presented to assess the environmental status Sensu on the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) based on the data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD). A decision tree developed by Borja et al. (2004) for integrating WFD results was applied after some adaptations. Modifications were included to evaluate the physicochemical status based on the eutrophication index developed for the Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results regarding the hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was assessed based on the concentrations of the heavy metals in water. Evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for the phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate the MSFD needs. Results from the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating the classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in the water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk for achieving the 'good' status were found in the 'moderate' status. The benthos was found to be the element showing the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weightage in the decision tree. The benthos quality and, in some limited cases, the eutrophication index largely determined the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was revealed by the macroalgae. All the indicators used correlated with the water and sediment parameters, although the benthos correlated better with the sediment factors while the phytoplankton and eutrophication index correlated with the water column parameters.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: hydrography ecology
Concepts: status index eutrophication elements
Expressions: eutrophication index Eastern Mediterranean water
People: Borja
Places: Eastern Mediterranean
Created: 2017-05-04 11:31:02.518 by: Generation Service
The ecosystem approach (EA) to environmental management is commonly associated with the holistic, integrative assessment of ecosystem status, where assessments of single elements are aggregated across one or multiple levels. Such an integrative assessment is required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Member states of the European Union must assess the environmental status of their marine waters every six years. For this purpose the MSFD is structured into eleven descriptors of good environmental status (GES), which in turn are subdivided into 29 criteria containing a total of 56 different ecosystem indicators. These 56 indicators are recommended to be used by the member states to assess the status of biodiversity, invasive species, exploited fisheries resources, food webs, seafloor integrity, hydrological conditions as well as the impacts of eutrophication, contamination, litter and anthropogenic noise. The nested structure of the indicators within the commission decision on criteria for GES provides a hierarchy of information, for which aggregation at different levels may be necessary, namely within criteria, within descriptors and across descriptors. However, to date no aggregation rules have been provided by the European Commission. This study explores the implications of five commonly used aggregation methods, once applied with the assessment structure outlined for the MSFD, on the aggregated assessment outcomes at the level of criteria, descriptors and overall GES. Assessing the 56 indicators within the nested structure of the MSFD led to different outcomes between the different methods. Furthermore, all five methods were sensitive to the number of aggregated elements, with higher numbers of assessed elements being associated with lower probability of reaching GES. To overcome this drawback, two new aggregation methods were developed with the aim to ensure that the probability of achieving GES was equal for each indicator, criteria, descriptor and the overall environmental status. This aim was termed as principal of equal probability (PEP). In practice, only one out of the two aggregation methods developed succeeded in maintaining PEP across all hierarchical levels. Whether PEP is imperative for multi-element ecosystem assessments remains to be debated, however, both scientists and managers should be aware of PEP and the implications of its violation. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: method aggregation descriptors criteria elements
Expressions: member state assessment result
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 11:17:53.201 by: Generation Service
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires that European Union Member States achieve \"Good Environmental Status\" (GES) in respect of 11 Descriptors of the marine environment by 2020. Of those, Descriptor 4, which focuses on marine food webs, is perhaps the most challenging to implement since the identification of simple indicators able to assess the health of highly dynamic and complex interactions is difficult. Here, we present the proposed food web criteria/indicators and analyse their theoretical background and applicability in order to highlight both the current knowledge gaps and the difficulties associated with the assessment of GES. We conclude that the existing suite of indicators gives variable focus to the three important food web properties: structure, functioning and dynamics, and more emphasis should be given to the latter two and the general principles that relate these three properties. The development of food web indicators should be directed towards more integrative and process-based indicators with an emphasis on their responsiveness to multiple anthropogenic pressures. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: indicators Food web
Expressions: member state marine environment
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:17:43.353 by: Generation Service
This paper uses the choice experiment methodology to estimate the value of the non-market benefits associated with the achievement of good (marine) environmental status (GES) as specified in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The MSFD requires that the 'costs of degradation' (the benefits foregone if GES is not achieved) be considered within a broader 'Economic and Social Assessment' of the marine environment by EU member states. Assessing the costs of degradation as defined by the MSFD implies that changes in marine ecosystem services provided in each State should be analysed. The results show that there are high values attached with changes to the state of the marine environment by the Irish general public. The results of a random parameters logit model also demonstrate that preferences are heterogeneous, with changes in certain marine attributes generating both positive and negative utilities. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: EU benefits costs results
Expressions: EU member states social assessment
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 09:36:17.689 by: Generation Service
For the ecosystem approach to fisheries management, understanding population dynamics and ecosystem resilience in response to the landing obligation acted by the reform of the European Common Fishery Policy (CFP) is currently an important avenue of research. This study attempts to assess the impact of the new CFP on marine food webs. Total carbon and nitrogen loss induced by a discard ban were estimated for the ecosystem of the Bay of Biscay based on French At-Sea Observer data and carbon and nitrogen content of discarded fish. Changes in predator diets were estimated by comparing two Bayesian mixing models, one mimicking the current situation and the second the application of the new CFP (removing the discarded species that would be landed from the model). Results illustrate a substantial shift in predation effort toward remaining available prey. The impact of changes in diet on individual and population health and on ecosystem functioning are important issues that remain to be assessed. A sister study could be carry out in another ecoregion, at a finer spatial scale in order to compare impacts and ecosystem responses. European monitoring programs such as DC-MAP and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) would help us to gain an understanding of how the food web would reorganize itself. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: ecosystem impacts food webs carbon diets
Expressions: understanding population dynamics ecosystem resilience
Places: District of Columbia
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.