102 results found in 5 ms Page 1 of 11
Created: 2017-05-04 10:37:15 by: Generation Service
Trends in abundance, temporal occurrence and spatial distribution of marine and brackish nonindigenous species (NIS) are part of the indicators to assess the compliance of Good Environmental Status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU-MSFD). European-wide regional and national databases for NIS will be useful for the implementation of the EU-MSFD but there are still spatial gaps for some regions and taxonomic groups. In 2009, Portugal was among the countries with the lowest reported numbers of NIS in Europe and a national online database on NIS was not available. This study provides an updated list of NIS registered in Portuguese coastal and estuarine waters, including mainland Portugal and the Azores and Madeira archipelagos. A list of 133 NIS was cataloged, most of which recorded in the last three decades, showing that this area of the North Atlantic is no less prone to introductions than neighboring areas. Most NIS reported in the current inventory are native in the Indo-Pacific region. Fouling and ballast water are the most likely introduction vectors of NIS in the studied area but shipping routes connecting to the NIS native regions are rare, indicating that most species are secondary introductions. The high number of NIS in the Azores and Madeira islands indicates that this ecosystem type seems to be more susceptible to invasions but these preliminary results might be biased by a higher number of studies and knowledge on the NIS occurrence on the islands. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: Madeira Islands
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
How much of the seabed is impacted by mobile fishing gear? Absolute estimates from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) point data
Created: 2017-05-04 09:31:44.872 by: Generation Service
Demersal trawling impacts extensively on the seabed, and the extent and frequency of this impact can be assessed using Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data (positional data of fishing vessels). Existing approaches interpolate fishing tracks from consecutive VMS locations (track interpolation) and/or aggregate VMS point data in a spatial grid (point summation). Track interpolation can be quite inaccurate with the current 2-hour time interval between VMS records, leading to biased estimates. Point summation approaches currently only produce relative estimates of impact and are highly sensitive to the grid size chosen. We propose an approach that provides absolute estimates of trawling impact from point data and is not sensitive to an arbitrary choice of grid-cell size. The method involves applying a nested grid and estimating the swept area (area covered by fishing gear) for each VMS point. We show that the ratio of the swept area to the surface area of a cell can be related to the proportion of the seabed that was impacted by the gear a given number of times. We validate the accuracy of this swept-area ratio approach using known vessel tracks and apply the method to international VMS data in the Celtic Sea.
Places: Celtic Sea
Created: 2017-11-21 16:00:36.868 by: Sergio Ferraresi
Expressions: test geometry Mediterranean
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Multi-purpose offshore platforms environmental monitoring, safety and security, a joint strategy from the FP7 TROPOS, NeXOS and PERSEUS Projects
Created: 2017-05-04 11:23:34.309 by: Generation Service
The FP7 funded TROPOS project approach is to develop a modular multi-use platform for use in deep waters, coupling several activities, amongst which aquaculture production and renewable energy conversion, with a focus on the Mediterranean, tropical and sub-tropical regions. In this paper, the environmental monitoring, safety and security aspects of designing multi-purpose offshore platforms are considered. Contributions of the FP7 NeXOS and PERSEUS projects further emphasise the innovations available for enhancing this approach.
Functional composition of epifauna in the south-eastern North Sea in relation to habitat characteristics and fishing effort
Created: 2017-05-04 10:55:53.745 by: Generation Service
Analysis of ecosystem functioning is essential to describe the ecological status of ecosystems and is therefore directly requested in international directives. There is a lack of knowledge regarding functional aspects of benthic communities and their environmental and anthropogenic driving forces in the southern North Sea. This study linked functional composition of epibenthic communities to environmental conditions and fishing effort and investigated spatial correlations between habitat characteristics to gain insight into potential synergistic and/or cumulative effects. Functional composition of epifauna was assessed by using biological trait analysis (BTA), which considered 15 ecological traits of 54 species. Functional composition was related to ten predictor variables derived from sediment composition, bottom temperature and salinity, hydrodynamics, annual primary production and fishing effort. Our results revealed significantly different functional composition between the Dogger Bank, the Oyster Ground, the West and North Frisian coast. Mobility, feeding type, size and adult longevity were the most important traits differentiating the communities. A high proportion of trait modalities related to an opportunistic life mode were obvious in coastal areas especially at the West Frisian coast and in the area of the Frisian Front indicating disturbed communities. In contrast, functional composition in the Dogger Bank area indicated undisturbed communities with prevalence of large, long-lived and permanently attached species being sensitive towards disturbance such as fishing. Tidal stress, mud content of sediments, salinity, stratification and fishing effort were found to be the most important habitat characteristics shaping functional composition. Strong correlations were found between variables, especially between those which changed gradually from the coast to offshore areas including fishing effort. Unfavourable extremes of these factors in coastal areas resulted in disturbed epibenthic communities, while the relative influence of a single factor on functional composition cannot be quantified. Coastal communities seemed to be well adapted to disturbance and the prevalence of opportunistic trait modalities not necessarily revealed a poor ecological status according to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The integration of functional aspects into the assessment of ecosystem health is recommended, since widely used structural measures failed in naturally disturbed habitats. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: North Sea
Organizations: Dogger Bank
The implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive - baptism of fire for the legislative construct of federal state variance legislation?
Created: 2017-05-04 09:16:47.24 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EG; MSFD) creates a regulatory framework for action by all EU member states to achieve or maintain good environmental status in all European seas by 2020. For this reason, all marine states of the EU must implement the Directive by developing and implementing national strategies. To this effect, the MSFD assigns EU member states a major programme of activities in a very tight timeframe. Hence, by 2010, the Directive should actually be transposed into national law and EU-wide criteria and methodological standards should be laid down (including for marine species and habitats) by a range of working groups in the EU Commission and under regional marine conventions. Moreover tasks have to be completed by 2012. Those tasks include an initial assessment of marine waters, the determination of good environmental status and the establishment of environmental targets. Besides Member states must report by 2013 among other things on progress in establishing marine protected areas. Furthermore monitoring programmes must be established and implemented by 2014, and programmes of measures must be developed by 2015 and must enter into operation by 2016. Finally a good environmental status is to be achieved in all European seas by 2020. This contribution critically attends to the recently inured act modifying the German Federal Water Act 2010 as amended and promulgated on 6th October 2011 in order to implement the MSFD into national German Law. Thereby the focal point is especially on the question, whether the newly created legal construct of an \"alternative legislation\", used by the federal states, passes its \"trial by fire\".
The Influence of Land Use on Coastal Litter: An Approach to Identify Abundance and Sources in the Coastal Area of Cilician Basin, Turkey
Created: 2017-05-04 10:07:35.096 by: Generation Service
The Cilician Basin located in the Northeastern Mediterranean is a region that is affected by a diversity of anthropogenic pressures and is further expected to suffer from negative economic, environmental and social impacts of coastal litter. To provide a baseline for litter management plans, the standing crop of coastal macro-litter was sampled on 13 beaches following MSFD guidelines. Environmental predictors characterizing beach use and potential land based litter point sources in the vicinity of the beaches were related to litter densities to identify litter sources. The average litter density was 0.92 +/- 0.36 items/m(2). Litter items resulting from convenience food consumption and smoking made up more than half of the total litter collected, while agricultural, industrial, fishing activities together contributed only 6% of the total number of items. Plastic items on average constituted more than 80% of the dominant material type. Percentages of the litter transported with currents from neighbouring countries (transboundary litter) varied from 0 - 4.23% between beaches. Direct deposition on the beaches was identified as the main method for transport of items to the coastal environment. Our results show poor local awareness and underline the need for educational programs that can help reduce coastal litter.
Places: Cilician Basin
Marine litter on Mediterranean shores: Analysis of composition, spatial distribution and sources in north-western Adriatic beaches
Created: 2017-05-04 11:20:59.397 by: Generation Service
Marine litter is one descriptor in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). This study provides the first account of an MSFD indicator (Trends in the amount of litter deposited on coastlines) for the north-western Adriatic. Five beaches were sampled in 2015. Plastic dominated in terms of abundance, followed by paper and other groups. The average density was 0.2 litter items m(-2), but at one beach it raised to 0.57 items m(-2). The major categories were cigarette butts, unrecognizable plastic pieces, bottle caps, and others. The majority of marine litter came from land-based sources: shoreline and recreational activities, smoke-related activities and dumping. Sea-based sources contributed for less. The abundance and distribution of litter seemed to be particularly influenced by beach users, reflecting inadequate disposal practices. The solution to these problems involves implementation and enforcement of local educational and management policies. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: Adriatic Sea
Sometimes you cannot make it on your own; drivers and scenarios for regional cooperation in implementing the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 10:12:57.084 by: Generation Service
Implementing the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive explicitly calls for regional cooperation between the EU Member States in the different regional seas. This regional cooperation, although set in a general framework of EU Member States and non-EU states utilising existing Regional Sea Conventions as focal point, develops along different tracks. Based on a series of interviews with different stakeholder groups in the different regional seas the drivers for this regional cooperation were determined. These drivers were used to develop a set of scenarios to depict possible ways and structures for cooperation at the different regional seas. In this paper the result of this analysis and the different scenarios developed are presented. The five scenarios developed were very helpful in elaborating alternative governance models for regional cooperation. From the validation by the stakeholders it became clear that both the drivers used, as the scenarios developed were found to be relevant. There is no single solution that is going to fit all regional seas, or that is going to appeal to all stakeholders within a regional sea. Especially in this setting the scenario approach does help people to explore the full range of possibilities that exists for the development of alternative governance models that address two issues raised but not detailed in the MSFD: cooperation and participation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Testing methods to support management decisions in coralligenous and cave environments. A case study at Portofino MPA
Created: 2017-05-04 09:23:58.651 by: Generation Service
Baseline data on the distribution, condition and extent of coralligenous and cave bioconcretions is one of the main requirements of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) necessary to assess the achievement of a Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020. In this study the potential of remote sensing and distribution modelling techniques to map, measure descriptors and choose indicators were tested, that could provide standard methods for the assessment of the health status and assist in monitoring activities. It is demonstrated how, by combining different methodologies, it is possible to map the distribution of the bioconcretions with acceptable accuracy and to discriminate the main habitat types and fades. In addition, zonal statistical analysis revealed that fishing activities primarily coincide with areas of high coverage of the bioconcretions. Results demonstrate that the presented methodology is a valuable simple tool to assess several MSFD descriptors and indicators, and could strengthen management efficiency when making informed, ecologically relevant decisions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
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