234 results found in 6 ms Page 1 of 24
Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): Constraints, specificities and recommendations
Created: 2017-05-04 09:33:31.176 by: Generation Service
In its decision (20101477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socioeconomic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of \"ingestion\" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: Mediterranean Sea
IDENTIFICATION OF THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA WATER TYPES ASSESSMENT RELATED TO THE MARINE STRATEGY FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION
Created: 2017-05-04 09:47:19.553 by: Generation Service
The main objective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is to achieve or to establish and maintain the \"good environmental status\" (GES) until 2020. The Black Sea is one of the fourth marine regions assigned for implementing the MSFD through two countries and EU Member States: Romania and Bulgaria. Through the MSFD Guiding Improvements in the Black Sea Integrated Monitoring System (MISIS Project), for the Romanian waters were defined and delimited the types of the seawater. Using the short and long-term data analysis of the physical parameters (temperature and salinity from available data since 1955 - 2012), the main features of the western Black Sea water bodies was characterized. In addition, the corresponding salinity of water bodies in the western Black Sea were evaluated, using the grid points 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees, calculating for each quarter from the corresponding number of measured data: the mean, standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. Based on the physical parameters, the degree of anthropogenic impact, chlorophyll-a concentration, bathymetry etc., four categories of the Romanian Black Sea waters types were identified: RO-TT03 - the northern part, marine waters under the direct influence of the Danube, at depths of at least 30 m; RO-CT01 - the marine waters from the central to the southern area (Portita down to Vama Veche), from the baseline to 30 m isobath; RO-MT01 - that corresponds to the inner and the outer shelf marine area from the 30 m to the 100 m isobaths and RO-MT02 - the perimeter for the type of offshore seawater located at depths of at least 100 m.
Created: 2017-05-04 10:19:37.067 by: Generation Service
The European seas are under anthropogenic pressures impacting the state of water quality, benthic habitats and species. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the Member States to assess the impacts of pressures and make a programme of measures leading to good environmental status (GES) by 2020. This study presents a method for assessing the quantity and distribution of anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats in the Baltic Sea by using spatial data of human pressures and benthic habitats. The southern sub-basins were more extensively impacted than the northern sub-basins. Over the entire sea area, deep sea habitats were more impacted than shallower infralittoral and circalittoral habitats. Sand and coarse sediments were the seabed types relatively most impacted in the Baltic Sea scale. A comparison against tentative thresholds for GES showed that in the sub-basin scale only one third of the habitat types was in GES. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: Baltic Sea
Connectivity and Dispersal Patterns of Protected Biogenic Reefs: Implications for the Conservation of Modiolus modiolus (L.) in the Irish Sea
Created: 2017-05-04 11:34:53.695 by: Generation Service
Biogenic reefs created by Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758) (horse mussel reefs) are marine habitats which support high levels of species biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services. Currently, M. modiolus reefs are listed as a threatened and/or declining species and habitat in all OSPAR regions and thus are highlighted as a conservation priority under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Determining patterns of larval dispersal and genetic connectivity of remaining horse mussel populations can inform management efforts and is a critical component of effective marine spatial planning (MSP). Larval dispersal patterns and genetic structure were determined for several M. modiolus bed populations in the Irish Sea including those in Wales (North Pen Llyn), Isle of Man (Point of Ayre) and Northern Ireland (Ards Peninsula and Strangford Lough). Simulations of larval dispersal suggested extant connectivity between populations within the Irish Sea. Results from the genetic analysis carried out using newly developed microsatellite DNA markers were consistent with those of the biophysical model. Results indicated moderately significant differentiation between the Northern Ireland populations and those in the Isle of Man and Wales. Simulations of larval dispersal over a 30 day pelagic larval duration (PLD) suggest that connectivity over a spatial scale of 150km is possible between some source and sink populations. However, it appears unlikely that larvae from Northern Ireland will connect directly with sites on the Llyn or Isle of Man. It also appears unlikely that larvae from the Llyn connect directly to any of the other sites. Taken together the data establishes a baseline for underpinning management and conservation of these important and threatened marine habitats in the southern part of the known range.
Places: Isle of Man
Created: 2017-05-04 10:46:02.967 by: Generation Service
Various programs and organizations (IMO, UNEP, IOC UNESCO, FAO) and recently the EU MSFD recognized marine litter (ML) as an issue of global threat from environmental, economic, human health and safety, and aesthetic aspect. Among the efforts to combat the problem adequate monitoring and application of harmonized methodological approaches for quantification are essential. This research presents the results of a pilot assessment of bottom ML in the Black Sea during the MISIS Project Joint Black Sea Cruise (22-31 August, 2013) along 3 transects in the NW Black Sea. The aim of the present study is a pilot quantitative assessment of bottom.
Created: 2017-05-04 10:10:26.768 by: Generation Service
This study calculates a suite of indicators reflecting the spatial extent of fishing and its impact on the seafloor and discusses the usefulness of these indicators to inform future management and the issues to consider. It explores several methods to calculate the indicators and shows that they can be informative to report on both fishing pressure and the status of the seafloor. However, although observed overall trends were robust against the specific method of calculation, the absolute values vary greatly with the calculation method. As both aspects are important from a policy perspective, agreement on the methodology to calculate the indicators is required. This study based on the Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) shows that it is possible to calculate indicators required to inform decision-makers on the pressure of fishing as well as the status of the seafloor pending a decision on the following issues: (i) choice of an appropriate grid cell resolution, (ii) use of interpolated VMS tracks instead of VMS position registrations, (iii) choice of an \"intensity threshold\" dependent on the benthic community recovery capacity, and (iv) the level of confidence required when assessing if an area is not impacted.
Ecosystem-based marine management in European regional seas calls for nested governance structures and coordination-A policy brief
Created: 2017-05-04 11:13:55.9 by: Generation Service
Marine governance in European seas is at a crossroad aiming towards implementation of eco-system based marine management (EBMM) through integration of different EU policies or directives to protect the environment, while at the same time expected to facilitate growth and employment in support of the blue economy. This article shows that the governance landscape at the regional sea level is very complex, fragmented and faced with several dilemmas. It examines the present governance structures in the four European seas (Baltic, Black, and Mediterranean Seas and North East Atlantic Ocean). It is argued that the implementation of EBMM at the regional sea level is characterized by a highly fragmented European governance system where there is lack of coordination between relevant DGs within the European Commission, between EU, International organisations, Regional Sea Conventions and the Member States and between sectoral governance arrangements that should provide sectoral management measures that support EBMM. The article develops suggestions for a nested governance system in which institutions, policies, laws and sectors are nested into a tiered, internally consistent and mutually re-enforcing planning and decision-making system. Developing institutional interaction and soft modes of governance between the EU, the Regional Sea Conventions, Member States and the governance arrangements of the different marine sectors will be crucial in evolving towards such a nested governance system for EBMM. Moreover, there is no one size fits all approach in implementing EBMM, which means that for each European Sea a context-dependent nested governance system should be developed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: United States of America
Development of the large fish indicator and associated target for a Northeast Atlantic fish community
Created: 2017-05-04 10:36:40.1 by: Generation Service
The large fish indicator (LFI) was developed to support the North Sea fish community Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO) pilot study, intended to establish an operational ecosystem approach to management. Subsequently, procedures established in the North Sea were applied to the Celtic Sea to derive an LFI and target specific to this region. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires EU Member States sharing marine regions to cooperate using the Regional Seas Conventions, and using indicators already adopted by them. The MSFD explicitly suggests the LFI as a foodweb indicator, but it could equally well be used to monitor biodiversity. Here, we apply the established rationale to develop an LFI and target specific to the southern Bay of Biscay. Despite declining in the 1990s, the LFI subsequently recovered to near original values in 2008. Previously, relationships between the LFI and fishing pressure have involved lengthy time-lags. We observe a similar relationship, but with shorter lag. The nature of the larger species responsible for much of the change in the LFI may explain this difference, and might also suggest that, in the Bay of Biscay, the LFI is more appropriately used as a biodiversity indicator, rather than a foodweb indicator.
Places: Bay of Biscay
Created: 2017-05-04 10:34:44.77 by: Generation Service
A review of the present state and future perspectives of the fishery in the Bulgarian marine part of the Black sea basin is presented. Following the approach suggested by the European Union (2008/56/EC) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), particular species may be good indicators of specific environmental factors in their local environment. It is advisable to set the indicators for monitoring the healthy state of a marine fisheries ecosystem, concerning both pelagic and benthos organisms before making a suggestions and assessments about any given stock. Formal decision rules using these indicators for maintenance of the fishery ecosystem in a productive condition, and for stock recovery, need to be urgently implemented. In the present paper the example with sprat stock in the Black sea was emphasised. It was found that one of the main objectives for effective and sustainable management of the fish stocks is to make regular annual assessment of the parental stock biomass, length and weight growth, age determination, mortality estimation and reproductive potential estimation. Levels of fishing that break normal productivity of the given stock and to far-reaching effects caused by other environmental variations and anthropogenic activities.
How much of the seabed is impacted by mobile fishing gear? Absolute estimates from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) point data
Created: 2017-05-04 09:31:44.872 by: Generation Service
Demersal trawling impacts extensively on the seabed, and the extent and frequency of this impact can be assessed using Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data (positional data of fishing vessels). Existing approaches interpolate fishing tracks from consecutive VMS locations (track interpolation) and/or aggregate VMS point data in a spatial grid (point summation). Track interpolation can be quite inaccurate with the current 2-hour time interval between VMS records, leading to biased estimates. Point summation approaches currently only produce relative estimates of impact and are highly sensitive to the grid size chosen. We propose an approach that provides absolute estimates of trawling impact from point data and is not sensitive to an arbitrary choice of grid-cell size. The method involves applying a nested grid and estimating the swept area (area covered by fishing gear) for each VMS point. We show that the ratio of the swept area to the surface area of a cell can be related to the proportion of the seabed that was impacted by the gear a given number of times. We validate the accuracy of this swept-area ratio approach using known vessel tracks and apply the method to international VMS data in the Celtic Sea.
Places: Celtic Sea
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