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The Continuous Plankton Recorder survey: How can long-term phytoplankton datasets contribute to the assessment of Good Environmental Status?
Created: 2017-05-04 10:00:53.551 by: Generation Service
Phytoplankton are crucial to marine ecosystem functioning and are important indicators of environmental change. Phytoplankton data are also essential for informing management and policy, particularly in supporting the new generation of marine legislative drivers, which take a holistic ecosystem approach to management. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of European seas through the implementation of such a management approach. This is a regional scale directive which recognises the importance of plankton communities in marine ecosystems; plankton data at the appropriate spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales are therefore required for implementation. The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is a multidecadal, North Atlantic basin scale programme which routinely records approximately 300 phytoplankton taxa. Because of these attributes, the survey plays a key role in the implementation of the MSFD and the assessment of GES in the Northeast Atlantic region. This paper addresses the role of the CPR's phytoplankton time-series in delivering GES through the development and informing of MSFD indicators, the setting of targets against a background of climate change and the provision of supporting information used to interpret change in non-plankton indicators. We also discuss CPR data in the context of other phytoplankton data types that may contribute to GES, as well as explore future possibilities for the use of new and innovative applications of CPR phytoplankton datasets in delivering GES. Efforts must be made to preserve long-term time series, such as the CPR, which supply vital ecological information used to informed evidence-based environmental policy. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
Created: 2017-06-16 09:39:57.299 by: Sergio Ferraresi
Expressions: test-jellyfish test-jellyfish
Created: 2017-05-04 10:03:24.525 by: Generation Service
Places: Baltic Sea
Created: 2017-08-03 16:49:28.495 by: Francesco De Leo
starting by sightings from citizen science campaign \" Occhio alla medusa\" CNR wants to fully exploit within the EVER-EST initiative the database potential to generate meaningful indicators in MSFD perspective
Created: 2017-05-04 09:49:36.334 by: Generation Service
The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) aims to achieve good environmental status (GES) in European seas by 2020. One of the features of GES is that underwater sound should not adversely affect the marine environment. Direct injury of marine life may occur, but a more pervasive effect is likely to be through the cumulative indirect effects on behavior. Assessing the significance of these effects on an ecosystem scale is difficult. If subsequent management of these effects is required, complex and challenging international decisions will be required.
Organizations: European Union
The FOBIMO (FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring) initiative-Towards a standardised protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies
Created: 2017-05-04 11:32:17.295 by: Generation Service
The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a 63-mu m screen, and the living benthic foraminiferal fauna of the > 125 mu m fraction is to be analysed. Splits are to be picked and counted entirely, and all counted foraminifera from at least one replicate per station have to be stored in micropalaeontological slides. Census data, supplementary laboratory data and microslides have to be archived. Advisory recommendations are to sample in autumn, to have a sample size of 50 cm(2) or a tube of 8 cm inner diameter, to use > 70% ethanol as a preservative, rose Bengal at a concentration of 2 grams per litre for staining, and a staining time of at least 14 days. The split size should be defined by a target value of 300 specimens, heavy liquid separation should be avoided, and the 63-125 mu m fraction or deeper sediment levels may be considered in some environments. We are convinced that the application of this protocol by a large number of scientists is a necessary first step to a general acceptance of benthic foraminifera as a reliable tool in bio-monitoring studies. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Concepts: surveys methods recommendations monitoring recommendations foraminifera bio samples surface
Organizations: European Community
Created: 2017-07-26 13:07:18.854 by: Francesco De Leo
Expressions: jellyfish species
Created: 2017-06-16 15:02:04.231 by: Francesco De Leo
Starting from Jellyfish sightings, we elaborate data to produce explicit geographical information concerning trend about the evolution and distribution of alien species according with MSF directive descriptors
Organizations: Doctors Without Borders
Complementary roles of European and national institutions under the Common Fisheries Policy and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Created: 2017-05-04 10:20:26.555 by: Generation Service
Exploited fish and shellfish stocks in European marine waters underlie the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The next round of reform of the CFP is due for completion in 2012. The exploitation at maximum sustainable yield (MSY) may be confirmed as the common environmental objective for good environment status (GES) of exploited fish and shellfish stocks of the reformed CFP and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The foreseen time horizon to achieve or maintain GES by 2020 appears inconsistent with the World Summit on Sustainable Development UN agreement in 2002. which stipulates that maintenance or restoring of stocks to produce MSY be realized by 2015. The MSFD requires instead that by 2015 the national programmes of measures be designed in order to become operational the following year (2016). The MSFD significantly strengthens Member States' competences and responsibilities to maintain or achieve GES for all exploited fish and shellfish stocks inside territorial waters and the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) with common goals. This will inevitably guide future European Fisheries Council decisions towards long term objectives even at regional levels instead of short term national socioeconomic concerns. With such provisions. MSFD is thought to foster and harmonise European fisheries management with ecosystem approaches. For reasons of simplification, the future revision of the CFP should cover all exploited fish and shellfish stocks in all European Seas including territorial zones and EEZs. Member States will need to prepare both for the increased scientific advisory and monitoring efforts expected. The eligibility of additional costs for the Data Collection Framework (DCF) needs to be discussed and decided as soon as these costs are identified and quantified by the competent authorities. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Places: World Summit
Organizations: United Nations
Proposition of indicators of anthropogenic pressure in the Bay of Toulon (Mediterranean Sea) based on zooplankton time-series
Created: 2017-05-04 09:34:44.685 by: Generation Service
Zooplankton present characteristics of high interest in the frame of investigation for organisms sensitive to environmental changes and/or anthropogenic pressures. Such indicators are particularly needed in the present context of European legislation (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). However, zooplankton have not been given the interest they should have in regards to these issues. The aim of the present study is to provide an attempt of proposition of indicators of good environmental status and associated thresholds based on zooplankton data. Zooplankton time-series (2002-2013) from the Toulon Bay in the Mediterranean was used. This time-series presents the great characteristics that the sampling has be done jointly in two areas of the Bay of Toulon known to differ in term of anthropogenic pressures. The study focus on the copepod assemblage and different potential indicators are tested: ratio of copepod families on total copepod and diversity index (Pielou's evenness). The indicators relevance was evaluated per season by looking at the importance of the overlapping region between density's distributions for each indicator in both bays. This methodology well-recognized is commonly used, particularly in the medical sector, for a long time. The results show that the Oithonidae relative abundance and the Pielou's evenness index are the best indicators of anthropogenic pollution for this case study. Thresholds related to the selected indicators are also proposed in order to characterize the degree of anthropogenic pressure for the Toulon Bay and to provide a first evaluation for potential environmental management. Applicability of the selected indicators and future development needed are also discussed. This study is a first step in the investigation for operational zooplankton indicators and should open the way for additional studies in coastal anthropized area such as the Mediterranean coast where it is more urgently needed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd.
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