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Created: 2017-05-04 09:59:42.762 by: Generation Service
To date there has been no evaluation of the capabilities of the Baltic Sea ecosystem models to provide information as outlined by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. This work aims to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring the modelling potential of nine Baltic Sea ecosystem models to support this specific European policy and, in particular, models' capabilities to inform on marine biodiversity. Several links are found between the Model-Derived Indicators and some of the relevant biodiversity-related descriptors (i.e. biological diversity and food webs), and pressures (i.e. interference with hydrological processes, nutrient and organic matter enrichment and marine acidification). However several gaps remain, in particular in the limited representation of habitats other than the pelagic that the models are able to address for descriptor sea-floor integrity and inability to assess descriptor non-indigenous species. The general outcome is that the Baltic Sea models considered do not adequately cover all the requested needs of the MSFD, but can potentially do so to a certain extent, while for some descriptors/criteria/indicators/pressures new indicators and/or modelling techniques need to be developed in order to satisfactorily address the requirement of the MSFD and assess the environmental status of the Baltic Sea. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: biology
Concepts: models Baltic Sea descriptors
Expressions: Baltic Sea model models' capability
Places: Baltic Sea
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2017-05-04 09:46:36.358 by: Generation Service
An indicator is presented to assess and monitor the good environmental status of national marine waters based on the status of commercially exploited marine fishes and invertebrates, including fully-assessed as well as data-limited stocks. The overall-indicator consists of one number per year. It summarizes the following sub-indicators: the stock size relative to the size that can produce the maximum sustainable fishing yield; the mortality caused by fishing relative to the natural rate of mortality; the mean length in the catch relative to the length where 90% of the females reach sexual maturity; and the abundance in national waters relative to mean abundance in the time series. For the example of German marine waters, the overall-indicator shows that only 3 of 19 stocks (Baltic Sea dab, North Sea plaice and North Sea sprat) were above the limit reference point for the overall indicator in 2011. North Sea herring was close to reaching the threshold, but most other stocks were still far below. Apparently fishing mortality was too high to allow recovery of more stocks to levels capable of producing the maximum sustainable yield. The chosen indicators and reference points may prove useful to other scientists tasked with assessing the environmental status of their national waters. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: food hydrography
Concepts: indicator waters North Sea
Expressions: overall-indicator consist Baltic Sea dab
Places: North Sea
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2017-05-04 09:44:36.064 by: Generation Service
European marine policies have recently been consolidated, and the scalar organisation of marine governance has been questioned. This paper examines this phenomenon in Europe as a result of implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and examines changes in the role of the national state vis a vis other levels of jurisdiction in marine policy. The relevance of use pressures differs across European member states, as do national policy styles and institutional configurations. Therefore, a nuanced picture is needed regarding the ways European marine policy is being implemented. To this end, the paper employs a co-evolutionary perspective studying the cases of Germany, Spain and Portugal. European marine policy has become anchored in the most relevant policy fields except agriculture and fisheries, and competency regarding its environmental dimension has been strengthened, formalized and clarified as a result of the MSFD. Its implementation, tied to international marine protection, comes following initiatives to develop maritime economies. In Portugal, implementation of the MSFD did not change the scalar organisation of natural resource governance. In Spain and Germany, the MSFD led to disputes regarding clarification of competencies. In the course of implementing the MSFD in Germany, challenges are tied to the political dimensions of formalizing practices and producing integrated policies. In Spain and Portugal, comprehensive stock-taking is itself a challenging task. (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Concepts: policies Spain implementation Portugal
Expressions: European Marine Strategy Framework Directive policy field
Places: Portugal
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2017-05-04 10:31:37.729 by: Generation Service
The European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve, for all European seas, \"Good Environmental Status\" (GEnS), by 2020. Ecological models are currently one of the strongest approaches used to predicting and understanding the consequences of anthropogenic and climate-driven changes in the natural environment. We assess the most commonly used capabilities of the modelling community to provide information about indicators outlined in the MSFD, particularly on biodiversity, food webs, non-indigenous species and seafloor integrity descriptors. We built a catalogue of models and their derived indicators to assess which models were able to demonstrate: (1) the linkages between indicators and ecosystem structure and function and (2) the impact of pressures on ecosystem state through indicators. Our survey identified 44 ecological models being implemented in Europe, with a high prevalence of those that focus on links between hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry, followed by end-to-end, species distribution/habitat suitability, bio-optical (remote sensing) and multispecies models. Approximately 200 indicators could be derived from these models, the majority of which were biomass and physical/hydrological/chemical indicators. Biodiversity and food webs descriptors, with similar to 49% and similar to 43% respectively, were better addressed in the reviewed modelling approaches than the non-indigenous species (0.3%) and sea floor integrity (similar to 8%) descriptors. Out of 12 criteria and 21 MSFD indicators relevant to the abovementioned descriptors, currently only three indicators were not addressed by the 44 models reviewed. Modelling approaches showed also the potential to inform on the complex, integrative ecosystem dimensions while addressing ecosystem fundamental properties, such as interactions between structural components and ecosystems services provided, despite the fact that they are not part of the MSFD indicators set. The cataloguing of models and their derived indicators presented in this study, aim at helping the planning and integration of policies like the MSFD which require the assessment of all European Seas in relation to their ecosystem status and pressures associated and the establishment of environmental targets (through the use of indicators) to achieve GEnS by 2020. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: ecosystem models indicators descriptors
Expressions: MSFD indicator seafloor integrity descriptor
Places: Europe
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2017-05-04 11:19:08.642 by: Generation Service
In order to test the response of phytoplankton to anthropogenic pressure, data of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton abundance, and composition are analyzed in relation to anthropogenic pressure gradient and environmental variables such as temperature, salinity and nutrients. Investigated sites encompassed wide tropic range according to a prelimihary determination of anthropogenic pressure, quantified through the LUSI index. Statistical analyses indicated nitrates and silicates as proxies of freshwater influence, and phytoplankton single metrics such as concentrations of chlorophyll a and abundances as indicators of anthropogenic pressure. Boundary values for different water quality classes for coastal waters under indirect freshwater influence (Type II) are obtained according to gradient between concentration of chlorophyll a and pressure index (LUSI), which empirically fit to exponential equation. The response of phytoplankton diversity was not linear, as the highest diversity was observed in the area with intermediate disturbance level. CCA analysis identified Skeletonema marina, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Guinardia flaccida, Leptocylindrus spp., Prorocentrum spp., Proboscia alata, Eutreptiella spp., and Pseudonitzschia spp. as local eutrophication indicators, whose abundances increased with nutrients loads. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: physics anthropology microbiology
Concepts: phytoplankton spp. pressure chlorophyll a
Expressions: Leptocylindrus spp. phytoplankton abundance
Places: Adriatic Sea
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2017-05-04 11:14:29.882 by: Generation Service
In the marine sciences an increasing number of studies on environmental changes, their causes, and environmental assessments emerged in recent years. Often authors use non-uniform and inconsistent definitions of key terms like driver, threats, pressures etc. Although all of these studies clearly define causal dependencies between the interacting socio-economic and environmental systems in an understandable way, still an overall imprecise wording could induce misunderstanding at higher policy levels when it comes to integrated ecosystems assessments. Therefore we recommend using unified definitions for a better communication between science and management within national, regional and international environmental policies, for example the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). With this article we provide definitions compatible with the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) approach. Although most examples are MSFD related and thus have a marine focus the definitions are intended to be equally applicable for other systems and are usable world-wide. We suggest sticking to these definitions for an easy and simplified knowledge transfer from science to management, since DPSIR model is already accepted as a helpful tool for structuring and communicating ecosystem analyses. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: ecology
Concepts: definitions science policy
Expressions: science to management policy level
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2018-06-20 11:23:13.338 by: Generation Service
To date there has been no evaluation of the capabilities of the Baltic Sea ecosystem models to provide information as outlined by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. This work aims to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring the modelling potential of nine Baltic Sea ecosystem models to support this specific European policy and, in particular, models' capabilities to inform on marine biodiversity. Several links are found between the Model-Derived Indicators and some of the relevant biodiversity-related descriptors (i.e. biological diversity and food webs), and pressures (i.e. interference with hydrological processes, nutrient and organic matter enrichment and marine acidification). However several gaps remain, in particular in the limited representation of habitats other than the pelagic that the models are able to address for descriptor sea-floor integrity and inability to assess descriptor non-indigenous species. The general outcome is that the Baltic Sea models considered do not adequately cover all the requested needs of the MSFD, but can potentially do so to a certain extent, while for some descriptors/criteria/indicators/pressures new indicators and/or modelling techniques need to be developed in order to satisfactorily address the requirement of the MSFD and assess the environmental status of the Baltic Sea. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: biology
Concepts: models Baltic Sea descriptors
Expressions: Baltic Sea model models' capability
Places: Baltic Sea
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2018-06-20 11:21:10.039 by: Generation Service
An indicator is presented to assess and monitor the good environmental status of national marine waters based on the status of commercially exploited marine fishes and invertebrates, including fully-assessed as well as data-limited stocks. The overall-indicator consists of one number per year. It summarizes the following sub-indicators: the stock size relative to the size that can produce the maximum sustainable fishing yield; the mortality caused by fishing relative to the natural rate of mortality; the mean length in the catch relative to the length where 90% of the females reach sexual maturity; and the abundance in national waters relative to mean abundance in the time series. For the example of German marine waters, the overall-indicator shows that only 3 of 19 stocks (Baltic Sea dab, North Sea plaice and North Sea sprat) were above the limit reference point for the overall indicator in 2011. North Sea herring was close to reaching the threshold, but most other stocks were still far below. Apparently fishing mortality was too high to allow recovery of more stocks to levels capable of producing the maximum sustainable yield. The chosen indicators and reference points may prove useful to other scientists tasked with assessing the environmental status of their national waters. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: food hydrography
Concepts: indicator waters North Sea
Expressions: overall-indicator consist Baltic Sea dab
Places: North Sea
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2018-06-20 11:20:51.752 by: Generation Service
European marine policies have recently been consolidated, and the scalar organisation of marine governance has been questioned. This paper examines this phenomenon in Europe as a result of implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and examines changes in the role of the national state vis a vis other levels of jurisdiction in marine policy. The relevance of use pressures differs across European member states, as do national policy styles and institutional configurations. Therefore, a nuanced picture is needed regarding the ways European marine policy is being implemented. To this end, the paper employs a co-evolutionary perspective studying the cases of Germany, Spain and Portugal. European marine policy has become anchored in the most relevant policy fields except agriculture and fisheries, and competency regarding its environmental dimension has been strengthened, formalized and clarified as a result of the MSFD. Its implementation, tied to international marine protection, comes following initiatives to develop maritime economies. In Portugal, implementation of the MSFD did not change the scalar organisation of natural resource governance. In Spain and Germany, the MSFD led to disputes regarding clarification of competencies. In the course of implementing the MSFD in Germany, challenges are tied to the political dimensions of formalizing practices and producing integrated policies. In Spain and Portugal, comprehensive stock-taking is itself a challenging task. (c) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Concepts: policies Spain implementation Portugal
Expressions: European Marine Strategy Framework Directive policy field
Places: Portugal
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd
Created: 2018-06-20 11:35:11.725 by: Generation Service
In order to test the response of phytoplankton to anthropogenic pressure, data of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton abundance, and composition are analyzed in relation to anthropogenic pressure gradient and environmental variables such as temperature, salinity and nutrients. Investigated sites encompassed wide tropic range according to a prelimihary determination of anthropogenic pressure, quantified through the LUSI index. Statistical analyses indicated nitrates and silicates as proxies of freshwater influence, and phytoplankton single metrics such as concentrations of chlorophyll a and abundances as indicators of anthropogenic pressure. Boundary values for different water quality classes for coastal waters under indirect freshwater influence (Type II) are obtained according to gradient between concentration of chlorophyll a and pressure index (LUSI), which empirically fit to exponential equation. The response of phytoplankton diversity was not linear, as the highest diversity was observed in the area with intermediate disturbance level. CCA analysis identified Skeletonema marina, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Guinardia flaccida, Leptocylindrus spp., Prorocentrum spp., Proboscia alata, Eutreptiella spp., and Pseudonitzschia spp. as local eutrophication indicators, whose abundances increased with nutrients loads. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Creator: http://everest.psnc.pl/users/generation_service/
Domains: physics anthropology microbiology
Concepts: phytoplankton spp. pressure chlorophyll a
Expressions: Leptocylindrus spp. phytoplankton abundance
Places: Adriatic Sea
Organizations: Elsevier Ltd