Created: 2017-05-04 10:46:48.261 by: Generation Service
The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2 m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch authorities started to promote sand extraction depths over 2 m for sand volumes over 10 million m(3). The ecological effects of deep sand extraction, however, are still largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated short-term effects (0-2.5 y) of deep sand extraction (20-24 m) and compared these with other case studies such as, regular shallow sand extraction on the DCS (2 m) and an 8 m deepened shipping lane. For intercomparison between case studies we used tide-averaged bed shear stress as a generic proxy for environmental and related ecological effects. Bed shear stress can be estimated with a two-dimensional quadratic friction law and showed a decrease from 0.50 to 0.04 N m(-2) in a borrow pit in 20 m deep water and extraction depths up to 24m. Macrozoobenthos in a borrow pit with a tide-averaged bed shear stress of around 0.41 N m(-2) is expected to return back to pre-extraction conditions within 4-6 year. When tide-averaged bed shear stress decreases below 0.17 N m(-2) enhanced macrozoobenthic species richness and biomass can occur. Below a tide-averaged bed shear stress of 0.08 N m(-2), increasing abundance and biomass of brittle stars, white furrow shell (Abra alba) and plaice (platessa platessa) can be expected. Below 0.04 N m(-2), an overdominance and high biomass of brittle stars can be expected whereas demersal fish biomass and species composition may return to reference conditions. Next to changes in faunal composition, a high sedimentation rate can be expected. Ecological data and bed shear stress values were transformed into ecosystem-based design (EBD) rules. At higher flow velocities and larger water depths, larger extraction depths can be applied to achieve desired tide-averaged bed shear stresses for related ecological effects. The EBD rules can be used in the early-design phases of future borrow pits in order to simultaneously maximise sand yields and decrease the surface area of direct impact. The EBD rules and ecological landscaping can also help in implementing the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) guidelines and moving to or maintaining Good Environmental Status (GES). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Domains: geology
Concepts: sand extraction bed
Expressions: extraction depths tide-averaged bed
People: Abra
Places: Dutch Continental Shelf
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 09:33:31.176 by: Generation Service
In its decision (20101477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socioeconomic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of \"ingestion\" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Domains: hydrography ecology
Concepts: litter composition amount species Trends impact
Expressions: socioeconomic impact entanglement ingestion
Places: Mediterranean Sea
Organizations: European Union European Community
Created: 2017-05-04 09:47:19.553 by: Generation Service
The main objective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) is to achieve or to establish and maintain the \"good environmental status\" (GES) until 2020. The Black Sea is one of the fourth marine regions assigned for implementing the MSFD through two countries and EU Member States: Romania and Bulgaria. Through the MSFD Guiding Improvements in the Black Sea Integrated Monitoring System (MISIS Project), for the Romanian waters were defined and delimited the types of the seawater. Using the short and long-term data analysis of the physical parameters (temperature and salinity from available data since 1955 - 2012), the main features of the western Black Sea water bodies was characterized. In addition, the corresponding salinity of water bodies in the western Black Sea were evaluated, using the grid points 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees, calculating for each quarter from the corresponding number of measured data: the mean, standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. Based on the physical parameters, the degree of anthropogenic impact, chlorophyll-a concentration, bathymetry etc., four categories of the Romanian Black Sea waters types were identified: RO-TT03 - the northern part, marine waters under the direct influence of the Danube, at depths of at least 30 m; RO-CT01 - the marine waters from the central to the southern area (Portita down to Vama Veche), from the baseline to 30 m isobath; RO-MT01 - that corresponds to the inner and the outer shelf marine area from the 30 m to the 100 m isobaths and RO-MT02 - the perimeter for the type of offshore seawater located at depths of at least 100 m.
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: WATER Black Sea STRATEGY regions water FRAMEWORK
Expressions: water body monitoring system
Places: Black Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:21:56.988 by: Generation Service
The article examines the experiences of two initiatives of cod avoidance by area regulations in the Kattegat in the light of the upcoming discard ban in EU fisheries. The first section highlights elements of the discard ban in the reformed EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The second section presents two initiatives for cod avoidance in Kattegat; a fisher initiative sharing information about cod bycatch which could lead to real time closures in areas with high bycatch of juveniles, for vessels with low cod quota to avoid catch of all cod, and a Danish Swedish Government initiative of permanent and temporary area closures in Kattegat. The third section discusses the lessons learned in the light of implementation of the discard ban. The fourth section sums up the lessons learned; Regional measures of implementation of the discard ban should include all vessels with quota in the region to be regarded fair and the goals should be clear, not least when the descriptors of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which might be more intangible for the fishers, are part of the goal of the measures. If incentives created by the regulation are stable over at least a few years the fishers and fishers' organisations are more capable at being active partners in developing the systems that support the discard ban. An example from the examined initiatives are the outline of a fleet information system, providing the skipper with information about hotspots of unwanted species allowing him to make a better plan for the selective fishery based on more qualified information. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Domains: fishing
Concepts: discard ban Cod fisher
Expressions: discard ban cod avoidance
Places: Kattegat
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 10:19:37.067 by: Generation Service
The European seas are under anthropogenic pressures impacting the state of water quality, benthic habitats and species. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the Member States to assess the impacts of pressures and make a programme of measures leading to good environmental status (GES) by 2020. This study presents a method for assessing the quantity and distribution of anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats in the Baltic Sea by using spatial data of human pressures and benthic habitats. The southern sub-basins were more extensively impacted than the northern sub-basins. Over the entire sea area, deep sea habitats were more impacted than shallower infralittoral and circalittoral habitats. Sand and coarse sediments were the seabed types relatively most impacted in the Baltic Sea scale. A comparison against tentative thresholds for GES showed that in the sub-basin scale only one third of the habitat types was in GES. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: habitats basins impacts
Expressions: habitat type Baltic Sea scale
Places: Baltic Sea
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 11:34:53.695 by: Generation Service
Biogenic reefs created by Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758) (horse mussel reefs) are marine habitats which support high levels of species biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services. Currently, M. modiolus reefs are listed as a threatened and/or declining species and habitat in all OSPAR regions and thus are highlighted as a conservation priority under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Determining patterns of larval dispersal and genetic connectivity of remaining horse mussel populations can inform management efforts and is a critical component of effective marine spatial planning (MSP). Larval dispersal patterns and genetic structure were determined for several M. modiolus bed populations in the Irish Sea including those in Wales (North Pen Llyn), Isle of Man (Point of Ayre) and Northern Ireland (Ards Peninsula and Strangford Lough). Simulations of larval dispersal suggested extant connectivity between populations within the Irish Sea. Results from the genetic analysis carried out using newly developed microsatellite DNA markers were consistent with those of the biophysical model. Results indicated moderately significant differentiation between the Northern Ireland populations and those in the Isle of Man and Wales. Simulations of larval dispersal over a 30 day pelagic larval duration (PLD) suggest that connectivity over a spatial scale of 150km is possible between some source and sink populations. However, it appears unlikely that larvae from Northern Ireland will connect directly with sites on the Llyn or Isle of Man. It also appears unlikely that larvae from the Llyn connect directly to any of the other sites. Taken together the data establishes a baseline for underpinning management and conservation of these important and threatened marine habitats in the southern part of the known range.
Domains: hydrography biology
Concepts: populations Dispersal Reefs Connectivity modiolus
Expressions: biogenic reef M. modiolus reef
People: Linnaeus
Places: Isle of Man
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 11:21:43.524 by: Generation Service
The Pilot Project SeaCleaner is a citizen science and educational project, developed by the Institute of Marine Sciences of the Italian Research Council (CNR-ISMAR). Since 2013, it has involved environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), volunteers, five Italian Marine Protected Areas surrounding the Pelagos Sanctuary, and so far more than 50 high school students within the Italian program for work-related learning internships. The project aims to overcome the lack of current data on marine littera gap of knowledge that cannot be ignored any longer, according to the last European Union's ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)by building an app for Android devices, which is easy to use and, at the same time, methodologically sound and comprehensive. This should enable a continuous census (in time and space) for supporting the proper management and removal of solid waste (through scheduled campaigns, etc.). The project has multiple effects: (1) to prompt students to broaden their scientific knowledge on topics not strictly related to scholastic curricula, making them aware of current environmental problems and teaching them how to solve them; (2) to engage an increasing number of volunteers in marine litter monitoring activities; and (3) to contribute to a common protocol for data acquisition, useful for both environmental and scientific purposes, helping scientists to overcome the lack of current data on marine litter.
Domains: education
Concepts: project Litter nongovernmental organizations Citizen Science
Expressions: number of volunteer citizen science
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 09:25:49.735 by: Generation Service
Domains: genealogy
Concepts: GEnS concept options seas
Expressions: European Marine Strategy Framework Directive seas convention
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 11:13:55.9 by: Generation Service
Marine governance in European seas is at a crossroad aiming towards implementation of eco-system based marine management (EBMM) through integration of different EU policies or directives to protect the environment, while at the same time expected to facilitate growth and employment in support of the blue economy. This article shows that the governance landscape at the regional sea level is very complex, fragmented and faced with several dilemmas. It examines the present governance structures in the four European seas (Baltic, Black, and Mediterranean Seas and North East Atlantic Ocean). It is argued that the implementation of EBMM at the regional sea level is characterized by a highly fragmented European governance system where there is lack of coordination between relevant DGs within the European Commission, between EU, International organisations, Regional Sea Conventions and the Member States and between sectoral governance arrangements that should provide sectoral management measures that support EBMM. The article develops suggestions for a nested governance system in which institutions, policies, laws and sectors are nested into a tiered, internally consistent and mutually re-enforcing planning and decision-making system. Developing institutional interaction and soft modes of governance between the EU, the Regional Sea Conventions, Member States and the governance arrangements of the different marine sectors will be crucial in evolving towards such a nested governance system for EBMM. Moreover, there is no one size fits all approach in implementing EBMM, which means that for each European Sea a context-dependent nested governance system should be developed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Domains: hydrography
Concepts: governance seas system
Expressions: north east Atlantic Ocean implementation of EBMM
Places: United States of America
Organizations: European Union
Created: 2017-05-04 11:18:30.918 by: Generation Service
The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is structured into eleven descriptors of good environmental status (GES). For each descriptor the current status of the marine environment should be assessed against its GES using ecosystem criteria and indicators. Within Descriptor 3 (D3) the MSFD addresses the status of exploited fish stocks according to three criteria (exploitation rate, stock size and size structure). This study performed an MSFD-compliant assessment of exploited fish stocks in the North Sea by aggregating data from analytical stock assessments and scientific research surveys to calculate indicator metrics for each criterion within each stock time-series. A stock achieved GES, when each indicator for each criterion had a good status. Of 43 assessed fish stock suggested by the EU Data Collection Framework, 63% (27) achieved GES. Though the MSFD explicitly demands that all exploited fish stocks achieve GES, this demand may be challenged by reality, because the status of exploited stocks depends not only on fishing impacts, but also on environmental conditions and ecological interactions. Therefore an alternative approach based on binomial distributions is presented to define limits for GES at the descriptor level. The implications and pitfalls of the applied assessment methods are discussed.
Domains: inorganic chemistry food
Concepts: fish GES descriptors criteria
Expressions: status assessment fish stock
Places: North Sea
Organizations: European Union